|Vincentio et Frauuitto
||Stilicho campaigns against
Vandals and Alans who invaded Raetia (Fall).
First invasion of Alaric into Italy (November).
||Arcadio et Honorio
||Arcadius elevates his son Flavius Theodosius to the rank of Augustus (January
10) at age 1.
Alaric marches on Milan and besieges the city (February).
Stilicho recalls troops from the borders for the
defence of Italy, and the arrival of his army
causes Alaric to withdraw. Stilicho defeats
Alaric at Pollentia (Pollenza) on Easter,
April 6. Stilicho defeats Alaric a second time at
Verona (high Summer), but allows the Goths to
Honorius moves his court from Milan to Ravenna.
||Theodosio et Rumorido
||Alaric retreats from Italy.
||Honorio et Aristeneto
||Stilicone et Anthemio
||A mixed group of Germanic
tribes and peoples (many of them Ostrogoths)
invades Italy under Radagais (winter).
|Arcadio et Probo
||Stilicho besieges Radagais
near Faesulae (Fiesole), starving the
invading horde into submission (August 23),
capturing and killing vast numbers of them.
Stilicho plans to invade Illyria and appoints
Alaric as magister militum per Illyrium.
Invasion of Siling and Asding Vandals (under Godigisel), Alans, Burgundians and
Suevi in Gaul (Fall or early winter).
In Britain, usurpations by Marcus (Fall) and Gratian (November).
||Honorio et Theodosio
||In Britain, Constantine III usurps the throne, then
crosses over to the continent. The Roman forces
of Gaul flock to his standard, as do several
barbarian groups. He signs a treaty with the
Germanic invaders and secures the Rhine. A
counteroffensive across the Western Alps by Sarus,
commander of Stilicho's Gothic forces has success
on the Rhone, but Sarus is defeated by
Constantine's magister militum Gerontius
Alaric demands a huge payoff as compensation for
Stilicho's postponed invasion of Illyria.
||Basso et Philippo
||Arcadius dies (May 1) of
unknown causes at age 31. Theodosius II becomes reigning Augustus
of the Eastern Empire at the age of 7, supported
by the Sassanid king Yazdegird I and dominated by
the praefectus praetorio Anthemius.
Stilicho gathers an army in Ticinum for a
campaign against Constantine III (Summer).
However, the soldiers mutiny at the instigation
of the magister officiorum Olympius and
lynch many high-ranking officers and civil
servants (August 13). Stilicho is deposed and
finally executed in Ravenna (August 22). Many
families of barbarian federate troops are then
massacred, after with the remaining federates
join Alaric's forces. They are also joined by 40.000
slaves (probably Germans taken prisoner after the
defeat of Radagais).
Second invasion of Alaric into Italy (late Summer),
after Olympius refuses the demands of Alaric.
Constantine III gains control of Arelate (Arles)
in May. He then makes his son Constans Caesar and
sends him to Spain with the magister militum
Gerontius, the praefectus praetorio
Apollinaris and the magister officiorum
Decimius Rusticus. They attack and defeat
Honorius' relatives, capturing Didymus and
Verinianus. Constans returns with them to his
father, who has them executed.
Invasion of Huns and Skiri under Uldin in Thrace
fails (winter 408-9). Olympius is replaced by the
praefectus praetorio Jovinus.
|Honorio et Theodosio
||Constantine III proposes an
alliance against Alaric to Honorius (Fall).
Vandals, Alans and Suevi invade Spain (September
28) after Constantine's troops leave the
Pyrennees passes unguarded.
In Rome, negotiations between Jovinus and Alaric
break down. Alaric elevates the praefectus
urbi Priscus Attalus to the rank of Augustus (end
of the year).
The Saxons raid Britain, but are repelled.
Uprisings in Britain and Armorica. The British
throw out the Roman officials - effective loss of
Britain to the Empire.
In the East, captured Skiri are to be used as
labour in agriculture.
|Varane et Tertullo
||Attalus sends an expedition
against the comes Africae Heraclianus to
capture Africa, which fails. He then marches to
Ravenna with Alaric, besieging Honorius in the
city. Attalus refuses Gothic command of a second
expedition against Africa, after which Alaric
deposes him (late July). Sack of Rome by Alaric (August
24-27). Death of Alaric at Cosenza, is succeeded
by his brother Athaulf (late Summer).
Constantine III conspires with Honorius' magister
equitum Hellebich and prepairs for
expeditions to Italy and Spain. Constantine then
elevates his son Constans to Augustus, while
Rusticus replaces Apollinaris as praefectus
praetorio. Constantine enters Italy while
the bulk of his army enters Spain with Constans
under command of Justus. They engage the Asding
Vandals in Castilia, killing their king Godigisel.
The Vandals are saved from annihilation when a
force of Alamanni (or Alani) comes to their aid.
Meanwhile Constantine has reached Ravenna, but
the murder of Hellebich and a revolt of his
federates along the Rhine forces him to return to
Gaul. Gunderic succeeds Godigisel as king
of the Asding Vandals.
In Italy, Honorius puts his forces under command
of the Illyrian Constantius. This new threat
causes Constantine to recall Constans from Spain.
At probably this point the magister militum
Gerontius defects from Constantine III (Fall),
apparently in conjunction with the Spanish, for
he elevates the Spaniard Maximus to emperor in Terraco (Tarragona).
Constantine sends the Frank Edobeccus (Edowich)
to raise and army along the Rhine, and his son
Constans with the praefectus praetorio
Rusticus to Northern Gaul.
||Honorio (et Theodosio)
||Gerontius or Maximus agree
terms with the barbarian invaders of Spain,
allowing them to settle. The barbarians decide to
divide the Spanish provinces between them, the
Alans receiving Lusitania and Carthaginiensis,
the Siling Vandals receive Baetica and the Asding
vandals and the Sueves receive Galicia.
Gerontius then enters Gaul, captures and executes
Constans at Vienne and goes on to besiege
Constantine III at Arelate (Arles) in
May. However, when the magister militum
praesentalis Constantius and Ulphilas (Wulfila)
enter Gaul with Honorius' army, Gerontius pulls
back to Spain. Constantius continues to besiege Arelate
(Arles). Gerontius is killed by his own
troops, who then defect to Constantius (early
Summer). Constantius continues to besiege
Constantine III at Arelate (Arles). A
relief army from Constantine's magister
militum Edobeccus is defeated at a battle
near the Rhône river (Summer). In Mainz, the
Germanic federates (Burgundi, Franks, Alamanni
and Alani from the left bank of the Rhine)
elevate Jovinus to emperor (Summer). After
all hopes of support are lost, the defenders of Arelate
(Arles) finally open the gates and deliver
Constantine III and his son Julian to Constantius.
Constantine is executed at the river Mincio on
the way to Ravenna (August/September).
||Honorio et Theodosio
||Athaulf crosses the Alps
and moves to southern Gaul with his Visigoths,
devastating the countryside. When his enemy Sarus
sides with Jovinus, Athaulf again sides with
Honorius and kills Sarus. This causes
negotiations with Athaulf to fail, after which
Jovinus names his brother Sebastianus emperor.
||Athaulf then defeats and
kills Sebastianus (Summer), after which Jovinus
flees to Valentia (Valence), where he is
besieged and captured by Athaulf. Jovinus is sent
to Narbo (Narbonne), where the loyal praefectus
Dardanus executes him as a usurper (May/June).
The heads of the brothers are displayed in
Ravenna (late August). Augusta Treverorum
(Trier) is destroyed by the Franks.
The comes Africae Heraclius rebels and
crosses over to Italy, but is defeated at
Otricoli by the comes domesticus Marinus
with great loss of life (June). Heraclius flees
to Africa but is sentenced to death (June 5) and
shortly afterwards executed.
The Burgundians are settled inside the Empire
around Worms. The Goths break with Honorius and
attack cities in Gaul. They fail to take Massilia
(Marseilles), but manage to seize Narbo (Narbonne),
Tolosa (Toulouse) and Burdigalia (Bordeaux).
Theodosius II begins construction of the new land
walls of Constantinople. These 7-km long murus
novus enlarge the city by a third.
|Constantio et Constante
||In January, Athaulf marries
Aelia Galla Placidia, sister of Honorius in Narbo
(Narbonne). After Constantius begins to
pressure the Goths, Athaulf elevates Priscus Attalus again to Emperor.
Constantius blockades Narbo (Narbonne)
and the Gallic coast, forcing the Visigoths south
||Honorio et Theodosio
||After a destructive march
through Gaul, Athaulf moves with his Visigoths to
Spain, but is murdered near Barcelona (July/August).
Sigeric is king for seven days
before he is murdered by Wallia, who fails to cross over
to Africa (late Fall).
||Theodosio et Palladio
||The Visigoths in Spain are
starving - in exchange for food they agree to a
treaty and the return of Galla Placidia (early in
the year). Attalus flees from the Goths but is
captured by Constantius. He is moved to Ravenna,
tortured, led through Rome in triumph and then
banished to the Lipari islands.
||Honorio et Constantio
||Galla Placidia is
bethrothed to Constantius (January 1).
The Visigothic king Wallia campaigns against the
Vandals under Fredebal in Baetica and against the
Alans under Addac (Attaces) in Lusitania, routing
them in battle. He reduces their number so much
that the survivors flee to the Asding Vandals.
|Honorio et Theodosio
||Wallia is recalled by
Constantius to southern Gaul, where he is allowed
to settle his Visigoths in the southwest around
Toulose. Death of Wallia, succession by Theodoric (end of the year).
In Spain, Maximus is again elevated as
Augustus by Gunderic, king of the Asding Vandals
(end of the year). The Gallic Council is
established at Arelate (Arles).
Jews are banned from the militia (the
civil and armed services).
||Monaxio et Plinta
||War between the Asding
Vandals and the Sueves in Spain, who are besieged
in the Nervasian Mountains. The comes per
Hispania Asterius intervenes on behalf of
||Theodosio et Constantio
||The Vandals break through
to Baetica after a battle near Bracarense
(Braga). Maximus is captured by the comes per
Theodosius urges civilians to protect themselves
Death of Yazdegird I, he is succeeded by his son Bahram V Gor as king of the Sassanid
Persians. End of a long peace with the Romans (Yazdegird
was guardian of Theodosius II).
||Agricola et Eustatio
||Flavius Constantius is elevated as Augustus (Constantius
III) by Honorius (February 8). He dies only 7
months later (September 2).
War erupts in Persia, the Alan magister
militum Ardabur campaigns against the
Sassanid king Varanes (Bahram) V.
The comes domesticus Castinus campaigns
against the Franks (Winter).
||Honorio et Theodosio
agreement with the Persians after a Roman victory;
the 'One Hundred Year Peace', which will hold
until 502. He finishes construction of the 7-km
long murus novus walls of Constantinople,
which have 96 towers and 10 gates.
The Spanish usurper Maximus is executed in
Ravenna (January 23).
The comes domesticus Castinus campaigns
against the Asding Vandals but suffers heavy
losses after being betrayed by his Visigothic
The comes Africae Bonifatius (Boniface) cedes from Ravenna.
||Mariniano et Asclepiodoto
||Galla Placidia flees to
Constantinople after being banished to Rome by
Honorius. Death of Honorius (August 15). Without
an heir (his sister Galla Placidia being in
Constantinople with her infant son Valentinian) Johannes, the primicerius
notariorum, is elected emperor with support
of the magister militum Castinus and Flavius Aetius, son of the magister
militum Gaudentius (December). Johannes is
recognised throuhout the West, with exception of
||Castino et Victore
||Johannes moves his capital
from Rome to Ravenna. Flavius Placidius
Valentinianus (Valentinian III), son of Galla
Placidia and Constantius III, is elevated to
Augustus in Thessalonica, only 5 years old. The
Alan magister militum Ardabur and his
son Aspar lead an army into Italy,
escorting Galla Placidia and her children back.
Ardabur is defeated and captured, but entices
some troops of Johannes to defect. The governor
Boniface supports Valentinian and is rewarded
with the rank of comes Africae.
||Theodosio et Valentiniano
||Johannes is captured in
Ravenna, mutilated and executed in Aquileia (May/June).
Three days later, Aetius arrives with an army of
Hun allies. As Johannes is dead, they are bought
off. Valentinian is installed in Rome as new
Augustus of the West (October 23). Aetius becomes
magister militum per Gallias.
In Britain, start of the rule of Vortigern.
||Theodosio et Valentiniano
||The Visigoths are raiding
in southern Gaul.
||Hiero et Ardabure
||Aetius lifts the Visigothic
siege of Arelate (Arles).
Vandals and Alans raid the African provinces. The
comes Africae Boniface is suspected of
planning a revolt. He is recalled, but refuses
and is declared an "enemy of the Republic".
Boniface then defeats an army which is sent
against him, killing all three of the commanders.
||Felice et Tauro
||Franks invade Gaul, but are
defeated by Aetius. The Saxons are invited as
federates into Britain by Vortigern and the British Council.
An army is sent against Boniface under the Goth
Sigisvult, who manages to seize Hippo Regius and
Carthage. The comes Africae Boniface
then apparently invites the Vandals to aid him
and to cross over from Spain into Africa. Death
of Gunderic, king of the Vandals, his half-brother
Gaiseric succeeds him.
||Florentio et Dionisio
||The Vandals under Gaiseric
cross from Spain into Africa, leaving Spain to
Visit of the bishop Germanus to Britain where he
helps defeat a Saxon raid.
Galla Placidia hastily pardons Boniface who joins
forces with the Imperial troops, but the Romans
are nonetheless defeated by Gaiseric.
||Theodosio et Valentiniano
||The Visigoths raid in parts
of southern Gaul. Aetius defeats the Visigoths
under Anaolsus near Arelate (Arles).
Aetius defeats the Franks in northern Gaul.
Aetius defeats the Bacaudae. Boniface attacks the
Vandals but is defeated, after which they begin
the siege of Hippo Regius (Bona) in June.
Aetius defeats the Iuthungi, who are never heard
||Basso et Antiocho
||Revolt in Noricum, which is
crushed by Aetius.
After 14 months of siege, an army under the magister
militum Aspar lands in Africa and relieves
Boniface. Nonetheless, the Romans are badly
defeated by Gaiseric, and they retreat to
Carthage. Boniface is removed by Aspar and
recalled to aid Galla Placidia against Aetius.
The Spanish bishop Hydatius travels to Gaul to
seek help from Aetius against the Sueves.
||Aetio et Valerio
||Aetius and Boniface at war
in a civil war in Italy. Boniface defeats Aetius
at Ariminium, but is wounded and dies.
After Aetius does not send help, the citizens of
Gallicia defeat the Suevic king Hermeric, who is
forced to release the families whom he took
||Theodosio et Maximo
||Aspare et Ariobindo
||The Hunnic king Rua
threathens to invade the Empire. He dies soon
afterwards, and is succeeded by Attila and his brother Bleda.
||Theodosio et Valentiniano
||Africa is officially
divided between Gaiseric and Aspar. Gaiseric
receives Hippo, Numidia and the Mauretanian
provinces. The Vandals receive the status of
federates. The Empire controls Carthage and the
eastern African provinces.
Bacaudic revolt in Armorica under Tibatto.
||Isidoro et Senatore
||The Burgundians attack Gaul,
but are defeated by Aetius and his Hun allies,
who destroy the Burgundian kingdom around Worms.
The Burgundians flee to the south and are settled
by the Romans in the east of Gaul under their
Troubles amongst the Visigoths in southern Gaul,
who attack Narbo (Narbonne) and Arelate
||Aetio et Sigisvulto
||Litorius relieves the
Gothic siege of Narbo (Narbonne).
The rebels in Armorica are subdued - in their
support, Germanus travels to Italy, where he dies
The Vandals raid Sicily.
||Theodosio et Fausto
||The rebels in Armorica are
Death of Bahram V Gor, he is succeeded by his son
Yazdegird II as king of the Sassanid
The Suevic king Hermeric passes the crown to his
son Rechila after years of illness.
||Theodosio et Festo
||Litorius is defeated and
captured by the Visigoths. A peace is brokered by
The Vandals besiege and capture Carthage (October
The Sueves take Merida, capital of Lusitania.
||Valentiniano et Anatolio
||The Vandals raid Sicily and
besiege Palermo. Aetius moves to Italy to face
the Vandal threat. The Eastern fleet under
Areobindus is forced to return because of the
invasion of the Balkans by the Huns. The Alans
are settled in large parts of Gaul.
The Franks sack Treverorum (Trier).
The Sueves take the comes Censorius
||Cyro (Maximo et Valerio)
||The Saxons in Britain rebel
- part of the island is overrun. Start of wars in
large parts of Britain.
Another expedition by Theodosius against the
Vandals in Sicily turns back because the Persians
invade the Empire. The Persians are easily
The Huns cross the Danube and sack the city of Margus
(Velika Morava). They besiege and take Naissus
The Sueves take Seville, capital of Baetica. The
Bagadae also rise up in Spain.
||Dioscoro et Eudosio
||Gaiseric is recognised as
ruler in Africa and in return for the (exhausted)
Numidia and Mauretanian provinces he receives the
(rich) provinces Africa Proconsularis and
Byzacium. He controls all lands west of
The Huns cross the Danube again and sack a number
of cities, forcing Theodosius into a hasty treaty,
paid for with more gold.
||Maximo et Paterio
||The Burgundians are settled
in Sapaudia and Sequania.
After a Roman force is defeated, the Huns are
paid off by the Eastern Empire with huge amounts
of gold that drain the eastern finances.
||Theodosio et Albino
||Valentiniano et Nomo
||Chlodio, king of the Salian
Franks, expands his territory from Toxandria to
Attila murders his brother Bleda and becomes sole
king of the Huns.
||Aetio et Symmacho
||Supposed date of the last
attempt of the British to secure Roman aid.
||Calipio et Ardabure
||Attila invades the Empire,
and defeats the Eastern army at the battle of the
Utus river. The Huns raid as far south as
Thermopylae, and sack the Serdica (Sofia),
forcing the praefectus praetorio to flee
from Sirmium to Thessaloniki. Peace is only
secured by evacuation of a buffer zone south of
Theodosius II finishes the enlargement of the new
land walls of Constantinople to double strength.
The 7-km long murus novus is now 60
Merovech becomes king of the Salian
||Postumiano et Zenone
||Eudoxius, leader of the bacaudae,
flees to the Huns.
The Bagaudae in Gaul rise up again.
Death of the Suevic king Rechila. He is succeeded
by his son Rechiarius. The comes
Censorius is (after 8 years inprisonment)
executed in Seville by the Suevic nobleman Agiulf.
||Asterio et Protogene
Sueves control almost all of Spain. Rechiarius
attacks the Basques (February). After a visit to
Gaul he allies with Basilius, leader of the Ebro
Valley Bagaudae in a raid against the remaining
province of Tarraconensis and the cities of Caesaraugusta
(Saragossa) and Ilerda (Lérida).
After taking the latter city they withdraw.
||Valentiniano et Abieno
||Death of Theodosius II
after he falls from his horse during a hunt, at
age 49 (July 28). Without a successor, the senate
elects Flavius Marcianus (August 25) under the
guidance of the magister utriusque militiae Aspar.
Marcian marries Theodosius' sister Pulcheria,
with whom he shares the power of Augustus. He
stops the payments to Attila. Death of Galla
Placidia, at age 58 (November 27).
||Aldelfio et Marciano
||The Huns invade Gaul (Spring),
aided by a mass of allied tribes. The Huns take
and plunder Divodurum (Metz) on April 7.
Aetius gathers a Roman army to confront the Huns,
and is aided by Visigoths, Franks, Alans and
Burgundians. The Huns are checked at the battle
of Campus Catalaunos (the Catalaunian
Plains or Châlons-sur-Marne) on June 20. Theoderic, king of the Visigoths,
dies in the battle. He is succeeded by his son Thorismund.
||Herculano et Asporatio
invades Italy (June). Pavia is sacked and the
Huns plunder the countryside. Aquileia is
destroyed, the survivors flee into the marshes
and later found the city of Venice. Attila
reaches the Po before turning back due to
sickness in his army, a famine in northern Italy
and because Marcian send an army under a dux
Aetius into the Hunnic heartlands.
||Opilione et Vincomalo
||Death of Attila (Spring).
Thorismund is murdered by his brother Theoderic II. In Palestine, monks rise
in revolt, but Marcian sends an army to end the
insurrection. His wife Pulcheria dies (July).
||Aetio et Studio
||Aetius is murdered by
Valentinian III in his throne room (September 21).
His son Gaudentius escapes to Gaiseric.
At the battle of the Nedao, the Gepids and
Ostrogoths defeat the Huns under the sons of
Attila. The Hunnic Empire breaks apart.
The magister militum per Dalmatia
Marcellinus, a friend of Aetius, begins a
seperation from the western Empire, holding
Dalmatia on his own.
|Valentiniano et Anthemio
||Valentinian III is in turn
murdered by former bucellarii of Aetius
on the Campus Martius (Field of Mars) on
Accession of the patrician Petronius Maximus, who supported both
murders (March 17). He marries the widow of
Valentinian, Licinia Eudoxia (daughter of
Theodosius), but rules only for 77 days. He names
his son Palladius Caesar and appoints Eparchius
Avitus magister militum praesentalis.
The Alamanni occupy the left bank of the Middle
Rhine area, from Worms upstream to Raetia and
into Sequania. Avitus can only legalise this
takeover by new treaties. His inspection up the
Rhine is the last occasion when the Romans can
influence the Rhine area.
The Vandals then break the treaty and invade
Italy from Africa (May). Petronius Maximus is
stoned to death by a mob whilst fleeing the city
(May 24), and his mutilated corpse is thrown into
the Tiber. Two days later (May 26), the Vandals
enter the city and plunder it for two weeks.
Before their return to Africa they abduct several
senatorial families, but also the Empress Licinia
Eudoxia and her two daughters Placidia and
Eudocia, who are shipped to Africa.
Meanwhile, the Gallic nobility, supported by
Theoderic II, elect their own emperor: the magister
militum praesentalis Eparchius Avitus is proclaimed at Tolosa
(Toulouse) on July 9. He soon marches to Italy (September
21), and manages to secure Noricum and Pannonia.
The Suevic king Recharius invades Tarraconensis.
||Iohanne et Varane
||The Gothic comes Ricimer
defeats the Vandals in a sea battle off Corsica.
However, Rome is stricken by famine and the
population is in revolt against Avitus, who is
vulnerable without his Gothic allies. The
commanders of the Italian army (Ricimer and the comes
domesticorum Majorian), strengthened by
their victory over the Vandals, then also rebel
against Avitus, causing him to return to Gaul (early
Fall). While Avitus is in Gaul, gathering
reinforcements, his magister militum
Remistus clashes with the army of Ricimer.
Defeated, he is forced to fall back on Ravenna,
where he is besieged. After being captured he is
put to death in the Palace in Classis, just
outside the city (September 17).
The Visigoths invade Spain for the first time as
federates of Avitus; the army also includes
Franks as well as the Burgundian kings Gundiod
and Chilperic. The coalition soundly defeats the
Sueves at the battle of Campus Paramus on
the banks of the river Urbicus (Obrigo),
Friday October 5. The Sueves are routed and
Rechiarius is taken prisoner and executed in
December. The Visigoths take Bracarense
(Braga) on October 28 and sack the city. End of
the Suevic kingdom.
Avitus is pursued by Ricimer and Majorian, and
defeated at Placentia (Piacenza) on
October 17, after which he is deposed and forced
to become a bishop on the spot (though some say
he was strangled or starved).
The Burgundians begin the expansion of their
kingdom beyond Sapaudia.
Roman troops quell disturbances in Armenia.
|Constantino et Rufo
||Death of Marcian (January
26) at age 65, possibly of gangrene in the feet.
Aspar suggests his successor - the senate duly
elects Flavius Valerius Leo, tribune of the Mattiarii,
who becomes emperor of the Eastern Empire (February
On February 18, Leo confirms Ricimer as patricius
et magister militum and Majorian as magister
militum. Leo may have intended to become
sole ruler, but Ricimer becomes the dominant
power in the West. However, Majorian's comes
Burco defeats the Alamanni at Lake Maggiore, and
on April 1 Iulius Valerius Maiorianus (Majorian) is elevated to
Emperor, six miles outside Ravenna in campo ad
Columellas ('at the Little Columns').
In Gaul, a certain Marcellus either rebels in
support of Avitus or for himself. Avitus,
meanwhile, attempts to return to Gaul but dies on
the journey, possibly at the hands of Majorian.
Death of Merovech, his son Childeric succeeds him as king of
the Salian Franks.
Death of Yazdegird II, he is succeeded by his son
Hormizd III as king of the Sassanid
Final accession of Julius Valerius Maiorianus (Majorian)
by recognition of Leo (December 28).
A Suevic raid in Lusitania.
||Leone et Maiorano
||Majorian fights in Italy
against Vandal raiders and drives them from
Campania. Majorian then refurbishes the Italian
fleet. With Italy secure, Majorian fights in Gaul
against the Burgundians, Visigoths and supporters
of Avitus, who openly ignore Majorians' rule.
Then he marches again into Gaul (early Winter)
and drives the Visigoths from Arelate (Arles).
He calls on the cities to look to their own
defence; defensores must protect the
city dwellers and thus counteract the emptying of
||Ricimere et Patricio
||Majorian makes his peace
with the Gallic cities and installs Aegidius as magister
militum. Majorian assembles an invasion
fleet and marches into Spain (May), preparing for
the invasion of Africa.
A group of Ostrogoths under Valamir raid in the Balkans before
being defeated by the magister militum
Anthemius. Later, Leo reaches a treaty with them.
After two years of rebellion, Peroz I kills his brother Hormizd
III with the help of the Hephtalites (White Huns).
Loss of Colonia (Cologne) to the Rhine
A Suevic raid in Lusitania.
||Magno et Apollnio
||The Sueves destroy Lucus
Augusti (Lugo) and kill the governor (March
Majorian marches his army to Carthago Nova
(Carthagena). Gaiseric offers a treaty, which is
refused. He begins to destroy the area where he
expects Majorian to land. However, the expedition
of Majorian to Africa fails when his fleet is
burned at Elica (Elche), forcing him to
conclude a treaty with the Vandals. Effective
loss of Africa to the Western Empire. Majorian
dismisses his allies and retreats back to Italy,
stopping at Arelate (Arles).
Death of Aelia Eudoxia, widow of Theodosius II (October
20), aged c. 60, still a prisoner in Africa.
||Severino et Dagalaifo
||Majorian returns to Italy,
but Ricimer sees his chance and has him arrested
at Dertonae (Tortona). Majorian is
forced to resign his title (August 3) and is
killed at the river Ira (August 7). A few months
of interregnum follow.
Gaiseric breaks his treaty and raids Sicily and
Italy. He also returns Licinia Eudoxia (the widow
of Valentinian III) and her daughter Placidia to
Constantinople. Placidia is the wife of Olybrius
(they married 454), who is now Gaiseric's
candidate for the western throne. Eudoxia's other
daughter Eudocia is married to Gaiseric's son
Huneric. However, Ricimer elevates Libius Severus to the rank of emperor (November
Both the Eastern emperor Leo as well as the magister
militum per Gallias Aegidius refuse to
acknowledge Severus, whose rule never extends
much outside Italy. Aegidius sets up his own
kingdom of northern Gaul, without using the title
of augustus. Effective loss of northern
Gaul to the Empire. Aegidius fails to drive the
Rhine Franks from Colonia (Cologne).
||Leone et Severo
||In order to urge them
against Aegidius, Severus gives Narbo (Narbonne)
to the Visigoths, who extend their territorium to
Gaiseric brings the Balearic Islands under his
control, as well as Sardinia and Corsica.
||Basilio et Bibiano
||The Burgundian king Gundioc
(Gundowech) is set up as magister militum per
Gallias. Gundioc concludes a treaty with the
Rhine Franks which denies the left bank of the
Rhine to the Alamanni. Gundioc legalizes the
occupation of Colonia (Cologne) and the
surrounding lands of Germania II by the Rhine
War between Aegidius and the Visigoths, he
defeats Frederick (brother of Theoderic II) at
the battle of Aurelia (Orléans) with
the aid of the Salian Franks under Childeric of
||Olybrio et Rustico
||Ricimer defeats the Alans
at Bergamensis (Bergamo) in the Alps and
kills their king Beorgor (February 6).
Aegidius makes a treaty with the Vandals. Death
of Aegidius. His territory is divided by the comes
Paulus, his son Syagrius and comes
Arbogast. Severus names Arvandus praefectus
praetorio of Gaul.
|No Emperor in the West
||Basilico et Armanarico
||Death of Libius Severus (August
15 or November 14), possibly poisoned by Ricimer,
or from natural causes. Gaiseric again proposes
Olybrius for the western throne, but no candidate
is named for two years, leaving Leo sole Roman
Death of Valamir (app.) who falls from his horse
during a Skirian raid. He is succeeded by his son
Theodemir as king of the Ostrogoths.
||Death of the Visigothic
king Theoderic II, accession of Euric.
An invasion of the Huns under Hormidac is
repelled by Leo's magister militum
Anthemius, who defeats them south of the Danube
in the Roman province Dacia.
||Posco et Iohanne
||The Vandals continue to
raid Italy in support of Olybrius, but also raid
southern Greece for the first time (Spring). In
response to this new threat, Leo decides to act
against Ricimer. He elevates the general Procopius Anthemius (who married the late
emperor Marcian's daughter) to emperor of the
West. With an army under the magister militum
per Dalmatia Marcellinus, Anthemius marches
to Rome, where he claims the throne on April 12.
In angry response, Gaiseric raids Illyria, Greece
An Eastern Roman expedition under Basiliscus (brother
of Verina, wife of Leo) sails against the Vandals
in Africa with a huge fleet of 1100 ships. In an
attempt to secure an agreement, Anthemius marries
his only daughter to Ricimer (end of the year).
A Suevic raid in Lusitania.
||Basiliscus destroys a
Vandal fleet, with 340 ships sunk. Meanwhile the magister
militum per Dalmatia Marcellinus recovers
Sardinia and parts of Sicliy. A third army under
the general Heraclius lands in Africa, captures
Tripoli and sets out to attack Carthage,
defeating the Vandals in Lybia. However, his
fleet is defeated in turn by the Vandals before
Cape Mercurius. Then Marcellinus is assassinated
in Sicily by one of his officers (August). When
Basiliscus hesitates and does not attack,
Gaiseric attacks him instead and the Eastern
Roman fleet is defeated before Carthage.
Heraclius also turns back.
Leo repels an invasion of Dacia by the Huns,
probably causing him to begin construction of the 56
km-long 'Anastasian' Long Walls (now Anastasius
Suru), 65 km west of Constantinople from the
Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara.
Leo fails to disband
all private armies of buccellarii,
Isaurians and armed slaves.
Treason of Arvandus in Gaul, who is suspected of
rebellion, tried and banished.
||Marciano et Zenone
||The Visigoths capture Betoregas
(Bourges) from the Romans.
Anthemius gives the province Lugdunensis I to the
Burgundians to buy their support. Anthemius also
allies himself with the Britons, and a British
army under Riothamus crosses to Gaul. Riothamus
reoccupies Betoregas (Bourges).
The Vandals sack Epirus.
A Suevic raid in Lusitania.
The Isaurian general Tarasicodissa (who takes the
name Zeno) is appointed magister militum per
||Severo et Iordane
||The Visigoths begin the
occupation of the Auvergne. Arvernis (Clermont)
is besieged by Visigoths and Gallo-Romans, while
being defended by Gallo-Romans and Burgundians.
Euric defeats the British army, after which
Riothamus flees to the Burgundians.
The Alamanni invade the provinces Germania I and
Belgica I, and are defeated by a coalition of the
Roman forces of Syagrius, Childeric of Tournai
and Saxon troops under Odoacar.
The former magister officiorum Romanus
plots against Anthemius (possibly supported by
Ricimer), but is executed, leading to a breach
between Ricimer and Anthemius.
After Basiliscus' failure against the Vandals,
the Alan magister utriusque militiae
Aspar regains influence and has his son Patricius
named Caesar by Leo. In Thrace, the magister
militum Anastasius revolts, supported by
Ardabur, another son of Aspar.
||Leone et Probiano
||Aspar and his sons Ardabur
and Patricius are killed by Leo in his palace.
Rebellion by supporters of Aspar, Ostys and
Theoderic Strabo, who commands the Ostrogothic
federates. A persecution of Aspar's supporters
follows, earning Leo the nickname 'Makellos' (the
Butcher). Leo then makes Zeno his new magister
A large Roman army under Anthemius' son
Anthemiolus enters Gaul but is defeated by Euric
on the Rhone - the last occasion when a Roman
army from Italy enters Gaul. Roman influence
remains around Arvernis (Clermont), Arelate
(Arles) and Massiliensis (Marseille).
The Visigoths begin blockading Arvernis (Clermont)
during the summer. The Gallo-Roman Ecdicius (son-in-law
of Avitus) breaks the siege for a while with just
||Festo et Marciano
||Olybrius is sent to Italy
by Leo, officially in support of Anthemius, but
with orders for Anthemius to kill him (because
Olybrius favoured Gaiseric). Ricimer learns of
the plot and proclaims Anicius Olybrius emperor (April). Civil war
between Anthemius and Ricimer, the emperor
supported by the Romans, Ricimer by his federates
under the Scirian Odoacar and the Burgundian
Gundobad. The latter is the former magister
militum of Gaul, but also the son of Ricimer's
sister, and he switches sides to Ricimer. During
a three-month siege, Ricimer starves part of the
city into submission and gains the rest by
treachery. Ricimer finally conquers Rome (July 1)
and his troops plunder the city. A relief army
under Bellomer is defeated outside the city.
Anthemius is caught fleeing the city disguised as
a beggar and he is executed by Gundobad in a
church (July 11). Accession of Olybrius. Within a
month, the great warlord and patrician Ricimer
dies of fever or an ulcer (August 18). Olybrius
names Ricimer's nephew Gundobad magister
militum. Death of Olybrius of dropsy after
just 6 months in office (October 22). Gundobad is
now the most powerful figure in the West.
Euric's dux Hispaniarum Vicentius
captures Pamplona, Zaragossa and most cities of
the last Spanish province of Taragonensis.
||Gundobad elevates the comes
domesticorum Glycerius to the rank of Augustus (March
3), but without approval of Leo, who appoints
Julius Nepos as general of an expeditionary army
to oust Glycerius.
Euric occupies the Berry region, and sends his
general (still called magister militum)
Vincentius to invade Italy. However, the latter
is defeated by Gundobad's Gothic commanders Alla
and Sindila. Euric however manages to occupy Arelate
(Arles) and Massiliensis (Marseille).
Glycerius sends an army to hinder the Ostrogoths
under Vidimer from entering Italy, transferring
them to Gaul instead, where they are attacked by
several enemy groups.
Leo appoints Thodoric Strabo as magister
militum praesentalis. He is challenged by
another group of Ostrogoths under Theodemir's son
|Leone et Zenone
||Death of Leo of dysentery (January
18), aged 73. Accession of his grandson Flavius Leo at age 7. His father Flavius Zeno is crowned co-emperor (February
Gundobad returns to Gaul to sucure
his succession as king of the Burgundians after
the death of his father Gundioc, and never
returns to Italy.
Julius Nepos is named emperor by Zeno.
He sails to Ostia, where Glycerius surrenders
without a fight (June 24). Glycerius abdicates
and become bishop of Salonae (Salona).
Nepos is also recognised by Syagrius. Nepos
concludes a treaty with Euric (worked out by
bishops, not Imperial officials!), restoring the
Provence back to the Empire, and Arelate (Arles)
and Massiliensis (Marseille) are
regained by the western Empire. After a 4-year
blockade, Arvernis (Clermont) falls to
Nepos appoints Ecdicius (who is in effect a
refugee from Gaul) as magister militum
instead of Gundobad. At some point Orestes is
appointed as patrician.
Death of Leo II (November 17), leaving Zeno sole
emperor. Treaty between Zeno and Gaiseric. Death
of Theodemir, he is succeeded by his son Theodoric as king of the Ostrogoths.
||A rebellion by Theodoric
Strabo, the Isaurian general Illus and Leo's
widow Verina in favour of her brother Basiliscus
forces the emperor Zeno to flee to Antioch (January).
Flavius Basiliscus is hailed emperor in his
place (August 9).
In Gaul, Nepos grants the Auvergne to Euric in
order to negotiate a treaty, thereby legalising
the Roman loss of Gaul.
The Frankish comes Arbogast takes
command of Belgica I from his capital at Treverorum
Under circumstances that remain unclear, the magister
militum Orestes sends an army against Nepos,
who takes control of Ravenna. Orestes then moves
against Ravenna (August 28) and Nepos flees to
Salona in Dalmatia. Accession of Orestes' son Romulus Augustus (also known as 'Augustulus
or 'little Augustus') at age 10 or 14 (October 31).
||Basilisco et Armato
||Basiliscus soon loses the
support of the population, his sister Verina and
his ally Illus, who changes sides to Zeno. Zeno
marches on Constantinople with an Isaurian army (August),
after Basiliscus' army defects to Zeno.
Basiliscus is deposed and exiled to Phrygia (August),
where Zeno starves him to death. Theodoric Strabo
continues to rebel, combining forces with
In Italy, the Eastern Germanic troops elect the
Scirian Odoacar as their king after Orestes
refuses them a third of all the land in Italy (August
23). Odoacar captures and kills Orestes near Placentia
(Piacenza) on August 28. Then he takes Ravenna,
where he kills Orestes' brother Paulus (September
4). Romulus is deposed and pensioned off to
Naples (he still lived in 511) by Odoacar (September
4). Odoacar is recognised by Zeno, but forced to
accept Nepos as legal emperor (who remains in
Dalmatia). Odoacar sends the vestis regia
to Constantinople and rules as rex Italia.
The Provence is also ceded to Euric, the last
province of Gaul is now lost to the Romans.
||Basilisco et Armato
||Death of Gaiseric, king of
the Vandals, he is succeeded by his son Huneric.
Theodoric Strabo is reappointed by Zeno, but
Theodoric Amaling ravages Macedonia.
||Verina plots against Illus,
and the latter imprisons her on the orders of
||Verina entices her son-in-law
Flavius Marcianus (son of Anthemius) to rebel
against Zeno, supported by his brothers Procopius
Anthemius, Romulus and the Gothic troops of
Theodoric Strabo, claiming that he has a better
right to the throne. With the help of Strabo,
Marcianus manages to take Constantinople, but
then he is quickly defeated by Illus, taken
captive and forcibly ordained as a priest. His
brothers flee to Italy.
||Nepos (last West Roman
emperor) prepares to return to Italy, but he is
killed by his own soldiers, probably at the
instigation of his personal bishop Glycerius (April
25). Odoacar then invades Dalmatia, and defeats
an army led by Odiva or Ovida (December 9).
The Thuringians plunder Batavis (Passau)
and threaten the cities of Noricum.
An earthquake destroys parts of Rome and
||Zeno executes his best
Theodoric Strabo dies in an accident, and most of
his Goths join the group of Theodoric Amaling,
who now becomes the rex Gothorum and the
most powerful man on the Balkans.
||Severino et Traundio
||The magister militum
per Orientem Illus is ordered to release
Zeno's brother Longinus, who is still a hostage.
Illus refuses and is dismissed.
||Venantio et Theudorico
||Rebellion of Illus and
Verina, Zeno sends an army under the Isaurian
general Leontius against them. The rebels however
manage to make him change sides and name him
emperor (July 19). Illus releases Marcianus and
sends him to Italy to get support from Odoacar.
Zeno uses his Germanic federates to defeat his
enemies. He entices the Rugians to attack Odoacar,
and an army under Iohannes Skytha and Theodoric
is sent east. This force drives Illus from
Antioch after an occupation of just 12 days (August
8). Iohannes then besieges Illus at Papirius.
Verina dies in the first year of the siege.
Huneric, king of the Vandals dies, and is
succeeded by his nephew Gunthamund.
Death of Peroz I in battle against the Hephtalite
(White) Huns, who rout the complete Sassanian
army. He is succeeded by his brother Balash (Vologases).
||Theodoric, whose army was
called back from the war against Illus, raids in
Thrace and even threatens Constantinople.
Death of Euric, he is succeeded by his son Alaric II as king of the Visigoths.
||Decio et Longino
||Clovis (Chlodwich) and Rachnagar
of Cambrai defeat Syagrius at Soissons. Syagrius
flees to the Visigoths, who give him up to Clovis.
Execution of Syagrius, last Roman ruler in Gaul.
His Roman army (exercitus Romanorum) is
incorporated into Clovis' Frankish army (exercitus
Francorum). The Frankish comes
Arbogast, ruler of Belgica I, also submits to
Clovis and may have become bishop of Carnotense
||Odoacar defeats and
destroys the Rugians in Noricum. This is the last
occasion where a Roman army (in name) operates
north of the Alps.
||Dynamio et Sifidio
||The fortress where Illus
and Leontius are besieged falls though betrayal
and both are executed in Seleucia-on-Calycadnus.
Theodoric accepts a commission from Zeno to
attack Odoacar in Italy. He first drives the
Gepids from Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica).
In Persia, Balash is deposed and blinded by the
magnates, who choose as his successor his cousin Khavadh I as king of the Sassanid
||Probino et Eusebio
||Theodoric invades Italy.
The army of Odoacar is defeated at the Isonzo (August
28) and again at Milan, where it is all but
destroyed. Odoacar retreats to Ravenna and
Theodoric starts a 4-year siege of the city.
||Fausto et Ariovindo
||Theodoric defeats an army
of Odoacar at the river Adda. He asks Zeno for
recognition, but Zeno refuses to send him the vestis
regia that he received from Odoacar.
||Death of Zeno (April 9).
His widow the empress Ariadne elects the elderly Flavius Anastasius 'Dicorus' (Two-Pupils) to
become her husband's successor (April 11). She
marries him soon after (May 20). After Anastasius
dismisses several Isaurian officials, Zeno's
brother Longinus begins a rebellion, supported by
Isaurian forces. Longinus is defeated and exiled
to Egypt, where he starves to death. Anastasius
begins a campaign to subdue the Isaurians, who
march on Constantinople.
Clovis defeats the Thuringians.
||Anastasio et Rufo
||Anastasius defeats the
Isaurians with his Hunnic and Germanic federates
at Kotyaion. A 7-year war follows.
||Albino et Eusebio
||Odoacar surrenders to
Theodoric, but is killed at a banquet (March 15),
Bulgars raid across the Danube, causing Anastasius
to repair the 56 km-long 'Anastasian' Long Walls
originally built by Leo.
||Asterio et Praesidio
||The Alamanni raid deep into
the territory of the Burgundians. Death of the
king of the Vandals Gunthamund at age 46,
succeeded by his brother Thrasamund.
The Franks raid Saintes.
Clovis barely wins a battle against the Alamanni
at Tolbiacum (Zülpich). End of the
In Persia, Kavadh I is deposed and imprisoned
after a failed attempt to break the power of the
magnates. He is succeeded by his younger brother Djamasp (Zamaspes).
||Viatoris et Paulo
Theodoric as king of Italy and sends the vestis
regia back to Rome.
||The Franks raid Burdigala
||Paulini et Iohanne
||Anastasius subjugates the
last Isaurians, who are henceforth employed in
the Roman army. Many are deported to Thrace.
Bulgars, together with the Slavic Antes and
remains of the Huns, defeat a Roman army.
In Persia, Kavadh I regains the throne with the
aid of the Hephtalite Huns.
||Patricio et Ypatio
||Clovis fights the
Burgundians at the battle of Aedunense (Dijon)
but fails to subdue them.