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Late Roman Timeline
401 AD - 500 AD

By Robert Vermaat

Late Roman Timeline 250-550 AD

Emperor* Reigned Consuls Year Events
Vincentio et Frauuitto 401 Stilicho campaigns against Vandals and Alans who invaded Raetia (Fall). First invasion of Alaric into Italy (November).
Theodosius II 402-50 Arcadio et Honorio 402 Arcadius elevates his son Flavius Theodosius to the rank of Augustus (January 10) at age 1.
Alaric marches on Milan and besieges the city (February). Stilicho recalls troops from the borders for the defence of Italy, and the arrival of his army causes Alaric to withdraw. Stilicho defeats Alaric at Pollentia (Pollenza) on Easter, April 6. Stilicho defeats Alaric a second time at Verona (high Summer), but allows the Goths to escape.
Honorius moves his court from Milan to Ravenna.
    Theodosio et Rumorido 403 Alaric retreats from Italy.
    Honorio et Aristeneto 404 year
    Stilicone et Anthemio 405 A mixed group of Germanic tribes and peoples (many of them Ostrogoths) invades Italy under Radagais (winter).
Arcadio et Probo 406 Stilicho besieges Radagais near Faesulae (Fiesole), starving the invading horde into submission (August 23), capturing and killing vast numbers of them. Stilicho plans to invade Illyria and appoints Alaric as magister militum per Illyrium.
Invasion of Siling and Asding Vandals (under
Godigisel), Alans, Burgundians and Suevi in Gaul (Fall or early winter).
In Britain, usurpations by Marcus (Fall) and
Gratian (November).
Constantine III 407-11 Honorio et Theodosio 407 In Britain, Constantine III usurps the throne, then crosses over to the continent. The Roman forces of Gaul flock to his standard, as do several barbarian groups. He signs a treaty with the Germanic invaders and secures the Rhine. A counteroffensive across the Western Alps by Sarus, commander of Stilicho's Gothic forces has success on the Rhone, but Sarus is defeated by Constantine's magister militum Gerontius and withdraws.
Alaric demands a huge payoff as compensation for Stilicho's postponed invasion of Illyria.
    Basso et Philippo 408 Arcadius dies (May 1) of unknown causes at age 31. Theodosius II becomes reigning Augustus of the Eastern Empire at the age of 7, supported by the Sassanid king Yazdegird I and dominated by the praefectus praetorio Anthemius.
Stilicho gathers an army in Ticinum for a campaign against Constantine III (Summer). However, the soldiers mutiny at the instigation of the magister officiorum Olympius and lynch many high-ranking officers and civil servants (August 13). Stilicho is deposed and finally executed in Ravenna (August 22). Many families of barbarian federate troops are then massacred, after with the remaining federates join Alaric's forces. They are also joined by 40.000 slaves (probably Germans taken prisoner after the defeat of Radagais).
Second invasion of Alaric into Italy (late Summer), after Olympius refuses the demands of Alaric.
Constantine III gains control of Arelate (Arles) in May. He then makes his son Constans Caesar and sends him to Spain with the magister militum Gerontius, the praefectus praetorio Apollinaris and the magister officiorum Decimius Rusticus. They attack and defeat Honorius' relatives, capturing Didymus and Verinianus. Constans returns with them to his father, who has them executed.
Invasion of Huns and Skiri under Uldin in Thrace fails (winter 408-9). Olympius is replaced by the praefectus praetorio Jovinus.
Attalus 409-10
& 414-16
Honorio et Theodosio 409 Constantine III proposes an alliance against Alaric to Honorius (Fall). Vandals, Alans and Suevi invade Spain (September 28) after Constantine's troops leave the Pyrennees passes unguarded.
In Rome, negotiations between Jovinus and Alaric break down. Alaric elevates the praefectus urbi
Priscus Attalus to the rank of Augustus (end of the year).
The Saxons raid Britain, but are repelled. Uprisings in Britain and Armorica. The British throw out the Roman officials - effective loss of Britain to the Empire.
In the East, captured Skiri are to be used as labour in agriculture.
Constans II
& 418-20
Varane et Tertullo 410 Attalus sends an expedition against the comes Africae Heraclianus to capture Africa, which fails. He then marches to Ravenna with Alaric, besieging Honorius in the city. Attalus refuses Gothic command of a second expedition against Africa, after which Alaric deposes him (late July). Sack of Rome by Alaric (August 24-27). Death of Alaric at Cosenza, is succeeded by his brother Athaulf (late Summer).
Constantine III conspires with Honorius' magister equitum Hellebich and prepairs for expeditions to Italy and Spain. Constantine then elevates his son
Constans to Augustus, while Rusticus replaces Apollinaris as praefectus praetorio. Constantine enters Italy while the bulk of his army enters Spain with Constans under command of Justus. They engage the Asding Vandals in Castilia, killing their king Godigisel. The Vandals are saved from annihilation when a force of Alamanni (or Alani) comes to their aid.
Meanwhile Constantine has reached Ravenna, but the murder of Hellebich and a revolt of his federates along the Rhine forces him to return to Gaul.
Gunderic succeeds Godigisel as king of the Asding Vandals.
In Italy, Honorius puts his forces under command of the Illyrian Constantius. This new threat causes Constantine to recall Constans from Spain. At probably this point the magister militum Gerontius defects from Constantine III (Fall), apparently in conjunction with the Spanish, for he elevates the Spaniard
Maximus to emperor in Terraco (Tarragona). Constantine sends the Frank Edobeccus (Edowich) to raise and army along the Rhine, and his son Constans with the praefectus praetorio Rusticus to Northern Gaul.
Jovinus 411-13 Honorio (et Theodosio) 411 Gerontius or Maximus agree terms with the barbarian invaders of Spain, allowing them to settle. The barbarians decide to divide the Spanish provinces between them, the Alans receiving Lusitania and Carthaginiensis, the Siling Vandals receive Baetica and the Asding vandals and the Sueves receive Galicia.
Gerontius then enters Gaul, captures and executes Constans at Vienne and goes on to besiege Constantine III at Arelate (Arles) in May. However, when the magister militum praesentalis Constantius and Ulphilas (Wulfila) enter Gaul with Honorius' army, Gerontius pulls back to Spain. Constantius continues to besiege Arelate (Arles). Gerontius is killed by his own troops, who then defect to Constantius (early Summer). Constantius continues to besiege Constantine III at Arelate (Arles). A relief army from Constantine's magister militum Edobeccus is defeated at a battle near the Rhône river (Summer). In Mainz, the Germanic federates (Burgundi, Franks, Alamanni and Alani from the left bank of the Rhine) elevate
Jovinus to emperor (Summer). After all hopes of support are lost, the defenders of Arelate (Arles) finally open the gates and deliver Constantine III and his son Julian to Constantius. Constantine is executed at the river Mincio on the way to Ravenna (August/September).
Sebastianus 412-3 Honorio et Theodosio 412 Athaulf crosses the Alps and moves to southern Gaul with his Visigoths, devastating the countryside. When his enemy Sarus sides with Jovinus, Athaulf again sides with Honorius and kills Sarus. This causes negotiations with Athaulf to fail, after which Jovinus names his brother Sebastianus emperor.
    Lucio 413 Athaulf then defeats and kills Sebastianus (Summer), after which Jovinus flees to Valentia (Valence), where he is besieged and captured by Athaulf. Jovinus is sent to Narbo (Narbonne), where the loyal praefectus Dardanus executes him as a usurper (May/June). The heads of the brothers are displayed in Ravenna (late August). Augusta Treverorum (Trier) is destroyed by the Franks.
The comes Africae Heraclius rebels and crosses over to Italy, but is defeated at Otricoli by the comes domesticus Marinus with great loss of life (June). Heraclius flees to Africa but is sentenced to death (June 5) and shortly afterwards executed.
The Burgundians are settled inside the Empire around Worms. The Goths break with Honorius and attack cities in Gaul. They fail to take Massilia (Marseilles), but manage to seize Narbo (Narbonne), Tolosa (Toulouse) and Burdigalia (Bordeaux).
Theodosius II begins construction of the new land walls of Constantinople. These 7-km long murus novus enlarge the city by a third.
Attalus 409-10
& 414-16
Constantio et Constante 414 In January, Athaulf marries Aelia Galla Placidia, sister of Honorius in Narbo (Narbonne). After Constantius begins to pressure the Goths, Athaulf elevates Priscus Attalus again to Emperor. Constantius blockades Narbo (Narbonne) and the Gallic coast, forcing the Visigoths south into Spain.
    Honorio et Theodosio 415 After a destructive march through Gaul, Athaulf moves with his Visigoths to Spain, but is murdered near Barcelona (July/August). Sigeric is king for seven days before he is murdered by Wallia, who fails to cross over to Africa (late Fall).
    Theodosio et Palladio 416 The Visigoths in Spain are starving - in exchange for food they agree to a treaty and the return of Galla Placidia (early in the year). Attalus flees from the Goths but is captured by Constantius. He is moved to Ravenna, tortured, led through Rome in triumph and then banished to the Lipari islands.
    Honorio et Constantio 417 Galla Placidia is bethrothed to Constantius (January 1).
The Visigothic king Wallia campaigns against the Vandals under Fredebal in Baetica and against the Alans under Addac (Attaces) in Lusitania, routing them in battle. He reduces their number so much that the survivors flee to the Asding Vandals.
Maximus 410-11
& 418-20
Honorio et Theodosio 418 Wallia is recalled by Constantius to southern Gaul, where he is allowed to settle his Visigoths in the southwest around Toulose. Death of Wallia, succession by Theodoric (end of the year).
In Spain,
Maximus is again elevated as Augustus by Gunderic, king of the Asding Vandals (end of the year). The Gallic Council is established at Arelate (Arles).
Jews are banned from the militia (the civil and armed services).
    Monaxio et Plinta 419 War between the Asding Vandals and the Sueves in Spain, who are besieged in the Nervasian Mountains. The comes per Hispania Asterius intervenes on behalf of the Suevi.
    Theodosio et Constantio 420 The Vandals break through to Baetica after a battle near Bracarense (Braga). Maximus is captured by the comes per Hispania Asterius.
Theodosius urges civilians to protect themselves with walls.
Death of Yazdegird I, he is succeeded by his son
Bahram V Gor as king of the Sassanid Persians. End of a long peace with the Romans (Yazdegird was guardian of Theodosius II).
Constantius III 421 Agricola et Eustatio 421 Flavius Constantius is elevated as Augustus (Constantius III) by Honorius (February 8). He dies only 7 months later (September 2).
War erupts in Persia, the Alan magister militum Ardabur campaigns against the Sassanid king Varanes (Bahram) V.
The comes domesticus Castinus campaigns against the Franks (Winter).
(Boniface)   Honorio et Theodosio 422 Theodosius reaches agreement with the Persians after a Roman victory; the 'One Hundred Year Peace', which will hold until 502. He finishes construction of the 7-km long murus novus walls of Constantinople, which have 96 towers and 10 gates.
The Spanish usurper Maximus is executed in Ravenna (January 23).
The comes domesticus Castinus campaigns against the Asding Vandals but suffers heavy losses after being betrayed by his Visigothic troops.
The comes Africae Bonifatius (
Boniface) cedes from Ravenna.
Johannes 423-5 Mariniano et Asclepiodoto 423 Galla Placidia flees to Constantinople after being banished to Rome by Honorius. Death of Honorius (August 15). Without an heir (his sister Galla Placidia being in Constantinople with her infant son Valentinian) Johannes, the primicerius notariorum, is elected emperor with support of the magister militum Castinus and Flavius Aetius, son of the magister militum Gaudentius (December). Johannes is recognised throuhout the West, with exception of Africa.
Valentinian III 424-55 Castino et Victore 424 Johannes moves his capital from Rome to Ravenna. Flavius Placidius Valentinianus (Valentinian III), son of Galla Placidia and Constantius III, is elevated to Augustus in Thessalonica, only 5 years old. The Alan magister militum Ardabur and his son Aspar lead an army into Italy, escorting Galla Placidia and her children back. Ardabur is defeated and captured, but entices some troops of Johannes to defect. The governor Boniface supports Valentinian and is rewarded with the rank of comes Africae.
    Theodosio et Valentiniano 425 Johannes is captured in Ravenna, mutilated and executed in Aquileia (May/June). Three days later, Aetius arrives with an army of Hun allies. As Johannes is dead, they are bought off. Valentinian is installed in Rome as new Augustus of the West (October 23). Aetius becomes magister militum per Gallias.
In Britain, start of the rule of Vortigern.
    Theodosio et Valentiniano 426 The Visigoths are raiding in southern Gaul.
    Hiero et Ardabure 427 Aetius lifts the Visigothic siege of Arelate (Arles).
Vandals and Alans raid the African provinces. The comes Africae Boniface is suspected of planning a revolt. He is recalled, but refuses and is declared an "enemy of the Republic". Boniface then defeats an army which is sent against him, killing all three of the commanders.
    Felice et Tauro 428 Franks invade Gaul, but are defeated by Aetius. The Saxons are invited as federates into Britain by Vortigern and the British Council.
An army is sent against Boniface under the Goth Sigisvult, who manages to seize Hippo Regius and Carthage. The comes Africae Boniface then apparently invites the Vandals to aid him and to cross over from Spain into Africa. Death of Gunderic, king of the Vandals, his half-brother
Gaiseric succeeds him.
    Florentio et Dionisio 429 The Vandals under Gaiseric cross from Spain into Africa, leaving Spain to the Sueves.
Visit of the bishop Germanus to Britain where he helps defeat a Saxon raid.
Galla Placidia hastily pardons Boniface who joins forces with the Imperial troops, but the Romans are nonetheless defeated by Gaiseric.
    Theodosio et Valentiniano 430 The Visigoths raid in parts of southern Gaul. Aetius defeats the Visigoths under Anaolsus near Arelate (Arles). Aetius defeats the Franks in northern Gaul. Aetius defeats the Bacaudae. Boniface attacks the Vandals but is defeated, after which they begin the siege of Hippo Regius (Bona) in June.
Aetius defeats the Iuthungi, who are never heard from again.
    Basso et Antiocho 431 Revolt in Noricum, which is crushed by Aetius.
After 14 months of siege, an army under the magister militum Aspar lands in Africa and relieves Boniface. Nonetheless, the Romans are badly defeated by Gaiseric, and they retreat to Carthage. Boniface is removed by Aspar and recalled to aid Galla Placidia against Aetius.
The Spanish bishop Hydatius travels to Gaul to seek help from Aetius against the Sueves.
    Aetio et Valerio 432 Aetius and Boniface at war in a civil war in Italy. Boniface defeats Aetius at Ariminium, but is wounded and dies.
After Aetius does not send help, the citizens of Gallicia defeat the Suevic king Hermeric, who is forced to release the families whom he took captive.
    Theodosio et Maximo 433 year
    Aspare et Ariobindo 434 The Hunnic king Rua threathens to invade the Empire. He dies soon afterwards, and is succeeded by Attila and his brother Bleda.
(Aetius)   Theodosio et Valentiniano 435 Africa is officially divided between Gaiseric and Aspar. Gaiseric receives Hippo, Numidia and the Mauretanian provinces. The Vandals receive the status of federates. The Empire controls Carthage and the eastern African provinces.
Bacaudic revolt in Armorica under Tibatto.
    Isidoro et Senatore 436 The Burgundians attack Gaul, but are defeated by Aetius and his Hun allies, who destroy the Burgundian kingdom around Worms. The Burgundians flee to the south and are settled by the Romans in the east of Gaul under their king Gundioc.
Troubles amongst the Visigoths in southern Gaul, who attack Narbo (Narbonne) and Arelate (Arles).
    Aetio et Sigisvulto 437 Litorius relieves the Gothic siege of Narbo (Narbonne).
The rebels in Armorica are subdued - in their support, Germanus travels to Italy, where he dies (May 26).
The Vandals raid Sicily.
    Theodosio et Fausto 438 The rebels in Armorica are subdued.
Death of Bahram V Gor, he is succeeded by his son
Yazdegird II as king of the Sassanid Persians.
The Suevic king
Hermeric passes the crown to his son Rechila after years of illness.
    Theodosio et Festo 439 Litorius is defeated and captured by the Visigoths. A peace is brokered by Avitus.
The Vandals besiege and capture Carthage (October 29).
The Sueves take Merida, capital of Lusitania.
    Valentiniano et Anatolio 440 The Vandals raid Sicily and besiege Palermo. Aetius moves to Italy to face the Vandal threat. The Eastern fleet under Areobindus is forced to return because of the invasion of the Balkans by the Huns. The Alans are settled in large parts of Gaul.
The Franks sack Treverorum (Trier).
The Sueves take the comes Censorius prisoner.
    Cyro (Maximo et Valerio) 441 The Saxons in Britain rebel - part of the island is overrun. Start of wars in large parts of Britain.
Another expedition by Theodosius against the Vandals in Sicily turns back because the Persians invade the Empire. The Persians are easily defeated.
The Huns cross the Danube and sack the city of Margus (Velika Morava). They besiege and take Naissus (Niš).
The Sueves take Seville, capital of Baetica. The Bagadae also rise up in Spain.
    Dioscoro et Eudosio 442 Gaiseric is recognised as ruler in Africa and in return for the (exhausted) Numidia and Mauretanian provinces he receives the (rich) provinces Africa Proconsularis and Byzacium. He controls all lands west of Triplolitania.
The Huns cross the Danube again and sack a number of cities, forcing Theodosius into a hasty treaty, paid for with more gold.
    Maximo et Paterio 443 The Burgundians are settled in Sapaudia and Sequania.
After a Roman force is defeated, the Huns are paid off by the Eastern Empire with huge amounts of gold that drain the eastern finances.
    Theodosio et Albino 444 year
    Valentiniano et Nomo 445 Chlodio, king of the Salian Franks, expands his territory from Toxandria to the Somme.
Attila murders his brother Bleda and becomes sole king of the Huns.
    Aetio et Symmacho 446 Supposed date of the last attempt of the British to secure Roman aid.
    Calipio et Ardabure 447 Attila invades the Empire, and defeats the Eastern army at the battle of the Utus river. The Huns raid as far south as Thermopylae, and sack the Serdica (Sofia), forcing the praefectus praetorio to flee from Sirmium to Thessaloniki. Peace is only secured by evacuation of a buffer zone south of the Danube.
Theodosius II finishes the enlargement of the new land walls of Constantinople to double strength. The 7-km long murus novus is now 60 meters wide.
Merovech becomes king of the Salian Franks.
    Postumiano et Zenone 448 Eudoxius, leader of the bacaudae, flees to the Huns.
The Bagaudae in Gaul rise up again.
Death of the Suevic king Rechila. He is succeeded by his son
Rechiarius. The comes Censorius is (after 8 years inprisonment) executed in Seville by the Suevic nobleman Agiulf.
    Asterio et Protogene 449

The Sueves control almost all of Spain. Rechiarius attacks the Basques (February). After a visit to Gaul he allies with Basilius, leader of the Ebro Valley Bagaudae in a raid against the remaining province of Tarraconensis and the cities of Caesaraugusta (Saragossa) and Ilerda (Lérida). After taking the latter city they withdraw.

Marcian 450-7 Valentiniano et Abieno 450 Death of Theodosius II after he falls from his horse during a hunt, at age 49 (July 28). Without a successor, the senate elects Flavius Marcianus (August 25) under the guidance of the magister utriusque militiae Aspar. Marcian marries Theodosius' sister Pulcheria, with whom he shares the power of Augustus. He stops the payments to Attila. Death of Galla Placidia, at age 58 (November 27).
    Aldelfio et Marciano 451 The Huns invade Gaul (Spring), aided by a mass of allied tribes. The Huns take and plunder Divodurum (Metz) on April 7. Aetius gathers a Roman army to confront the Huns, and is aided by Visigoths, Franks, Alans and Burgundians. The Huns are checked at the battle of Campus Catalaunos (the Catalaunian Plains or Châlons-sur-Marne) on June 20. Theoderic, king of the Visigoths, dies in the battle. He is succeeded by his son Thorismund.
    Herculano et Asporatio 452

Attila invades Italy (June). Pavia is sacked and the Huns plunder the countryside. Aquileia is destroyed, the survivors flee into the marshes and later found the city of Venice. Attila reaches the Po before turning back due to sickness in his army, a famine in northern Italy and because Marcian send an army under a dux Aetius into the Hunnic heartlands.

    Opilione et Vincomalo 453 Death of Attila (Spring). Thorismund is murdered by his brother Theoderic II. In Palestine, monks rise in revolt, but Marcian sends an army to end the insurrection. His wife Pulcheria dies (July).
    Aetio et Studio 454 Aetius is murdered by Valentinian III in his throne room (September 21). His son Gaudentius escapes to Gaiseric.
At the battle of the Nedao, the Gepids and Ostrogoths defeat the Huns under the sons of Attila. The Hunnic Empire breaks apart.
The magister militum per Dalmatia Marcellinus, a friend of Aetius, begins a seperation from the western Empire, holding Dalmatia on his own.
P. Maximus
Valentiniano et Anthemio 455 Valentinian III is in turn murdered by former bucellarii of Aetius on the Campus Martius (Field of Mars) on March 16.
Accession of the patrician
Petronius Maximus, who supported both murders (March 17). He marries the widow of Valentinian, Licinia Eudoxia (daughter of Theodosius), but rules only for 77 days. He names his son Palladius Caesar and appoints Eparchius Avitus magister militum praesentalis.
The Alamanni occupy the left bank of the Middle Rhine area, from Worms upstream to Raetia and into Sequania. Avitus can only legalise this takeover by new treaties. His inspection up the Rhine is the last occasion when the Romans can influence the Rhine area.
The Vandals then break the treaty and invade Italy from Africa (May). Petronius Maximus is stoned to death by a mob whilst fleeing the city (May 24), and his mutilated corpse is thrown into the Tiber. Two days later (May 26), the Vandals enter the city and plunder it for two weeks. Before their return to Africa they abduct several senatorial families, but also the Empress Licinia Eudoxia and her two daughters Placidia and Eudocia, who are shipped to Africa.
Meanwhile, the Gallic nobility, supported by Theoderic II, elect their own emperor: the magister militum praesentalis
Eparchius Avitus is proclaimed at Tolosa (Toulouse) on July 9. He soon marches to Italy (September 21), and manages to secure Noricum and Pannonia.
The Suevic king Recharius invades Tarraconensis.
(Ricimer)   Iohanne et Varane 456 The Gothic comes Ricimer defeats the Vandals in a sea battle off Corsica. However, Rome is stricken by famine and the population is in revolt against Avitus, who is vulnerable without his Gothic allies. The commanders of the Italian army (Ricimer and the comes domesticorum Majorian), strengthened by their victory over the Vandals, then also rebel against Avitus, causing him to return to Gaul (early Fall). While Avitus is in Gaul, gathering reinforcements, his magister militum Remistus clashes with the army of Ricimer. Defeated, he is forced to fall back on Ravenna, where he is besieged. After being captured he is put to death in the Palace in Classis, just outside the city (September 17).
The Visigoths invade Spain for the first time as federates of Avitus; the army also includes Franks as well as the Burgundian kings Gundiod and Chilperic. The coalition soundly defeats the Sueves at the battle of Campus Paramus on the banks of the river Urbicus (Obrigo), Friday October 5. The Sueves are routed and Rechiarius is taken prisoner and executed in December. The Visigoths take Bracarense (Braga) on October 28 and sack the city. End of the Suevic kingdom.
Avitus is pursued by Ricimer and Majorian, and defeated at Placentia (Piacenza) on October 17, after which he is deposed and forced to become a bishop on the spot (though some say he was strangled or starved).
The Burgundians begin the expansion of their kingdom beyond Sapaudia.
Roman troops quell disturbances in Armenia.
Constantino et Rufo 457 Death of Marcian (January 26) at age 65, possibly of gangrene in the feet. Aspar suggests his successor - the senate duly elects Flavius Valerius Leo, tribune of the Mattiarii, who becomes emperor of the Eastern Empire (February 7).
On February 18, Leo confirms Ricimer as patricius et magister militum and Majorian as magister militum. Leo may have intended to become sole ruler, but Ricimer becomes the dominant power in the West. However, Majorian's comes Burco defeats the Alamanni at Lake Maggiore, and on April 1
Iulius Valerius Maiorianus (Majorian) is elevated to Emperor, six miles outside Ravenna in campo ad Columellas ('at the Little Columns').
In Gaul, a certain Marcellus either rebels in support of Avitus or for himself. Avitus, meanwhile, attempts to return to Gaul but dies on the journey, possibly at the hands of Majorian.
Death of Merovech, his son
Childeric succeeds him as king of the Salian Franks.
Death of Yazdegird II, he is succeeded by his son
Hormizd III as king of the Sassanid Persians.
Final accession of Julius Valerius Maiorianus (Majorian) by recognition of Leo (December 28).
A Suevic raid in Lusitania.
    Leone et Maiorano 458 Majorian fights in Italy against Vandal raiders and drives them from Campania. Majorian then refurbishes the Italian fleet. With Italy secure, Majorian fights in Gaul against the Burgundians, Visigoths and supporters of Avitus, who openly ignore Majorians' rule. Then he marches again into Gaul (early Winter) and drives the Visigoths from Arelate (Arles). He calls on the cities to look to their own defence; defensores must protect the city dwellers and thus counteract the emptying of the cities.
    Ricimere et Patricio 459 Majorian makes his peace with the Gallic cities and installs Aegidius as magister militum. Majorian assembles an invasion fleet and marches into Spain (May), preparing for the invasion of Africa.
A group of Ostrogoths under
Valamir raid in the Balkans before being defeated by the magister militum Anthemius. Later, Leo reaches a treaty with them.
After two years of rebellion,
Peroz I kills his brother Hormizd III with the help of the Hephtalites (White Huns).
Loss of Colonia (Cologne) to the Rhine Franks .
A Suevic raid in Lusitania.
    Magno et Apollnio 460 The Sueves destroy Lucus Augusti (Lugo) and kill the governor (March 27).
Majorian marches his army to Carthago Nova (Carthagena). Gaiseric offers a treaty, which is refused. He begins to destroy the area where he expects Majorian to land. However, the expedition of Majorian to Africa fails when his fleet is burned at Elica (Elche), forcing him to conclude a treaty with the Vandals. Effective loss of Africa to the Western Empire. Majorian dismisses his allies and retreats back to Italy, stopping at Arelate (Arles).
Death of Aelia Eudoxia, widow of Theodosius II (October 20), aged c. 60, still a prisoner in Africa.
Severus 461-5 Severino et Dagalaifo 461 Majorian returns to Italy, but Ricimer sees his chance and has him arrested at Dertonae (Tortona). Majorian is forced to resign his title (August 3) and is killed at the river Ira (August 7). A few months of interregnum follow.
Gaiseric breaks his treaty and raids Sicily and Italy. He also returns Licinia Eudoxia (the widow of Valentinian III) and her daughter Placidia to Constantinople. Placidia is the wife of Olybrius (they married 454), who is now Gaiseric's candidate for the western throne. Eudoxia's other daughter Eudocia is married to Gaiseric's son Huneric. However, Ricimer elevates
Libius Severus to the rank of emperor (November 7).
Both the Eastern emperor Leo as well as the magister militum per Gallias Aegidius refuse to acknowledge Severus, whose rule never extends much outside Italy. Aegidius sets up his own kingdom of northern Gaul, without using the title of augustus. Effective loss of northern Gaul to the Empire. Aegidius fails to drive the Rhine Franks from Colonia (Cologne).
    Leone et Severo 462 In order to urge them against Aegidius, Severus gives Narbo (Narbonne) to the Visigoths, who extend their territorium to the Mediterraneum.
Gaiseric brings the Balearic Islands under his control, as well as Sardinia and Corsica.
    Basilio et Bibiano 463 The Burgundian king Gundioc (Gundowech) is set up as magister militum per Gallias. Gundioc concludes a treaty with the Rhine Franks which denies the left bank of the Rhine to the Alamanni. Gundioc legalizes the occupation of Colonia (Cologne) and the surrounding lands of Germania II by the Rhine Franks.
War between Aegidius and the Visigoths, he defeats Frederick (brother of Theoderic II) at the battle of Aurelia (Orléans) with the aid of the Salian Franks under Childeric of Tournai.
    Olybrio et Rustico 464 Ricimer defeats the Alans at Bergamensis (Bergamo) in the Alps and kills their king Beorgor (February 6).
Aegidius makes a treaty with the Vandals. Death of Aegidius. His territory is divided by the comes Paulus, his son Syagrius and comes Arbogast. Severus names Arvandus praefectus praetorio of Gaul.
No Emperor in the West 465-7 Basilico et Armanarico 465 Death of Libius Severus (August 15 or November 14), possibly poisoned by Ricimer, or from natural causes. Gaiseric again proposes Olybrius for the western throne, but no candidate is named for two years, leaving Leo sole Roman emperor.
Death of Valamir (app.) who falls from his horse during a Skirian raid. He is succeeded by his son
Theodemir as king of the Ostrogoths.
    Leone 466 Death of the Visigothic king Theoderic II, accession of Euric.
An invasion of the Huns under Hormidac is repelled by Leo's magister militum Anthemius, who defeats them south of the Danube in the Roman province Dacia.
Anthemius 467-72 Posco et Iohanne 467 The Vandals continue to raid Italy in support of Olybrius, but also raid southern Greece for the first time (Spring). In response to this new threat, Leo decides to act against Ricimer. He elevates the general Procopius Anthemius (who married the late emperor Marcian's daughter) to emperor of the West. With an army under the magister militum per Dalmatia Marcellinus, Anthemius marches to Rome, where he claims the throne on April 12. In angry response, Gaiseric raids Illyria, Greece and Alexandria.
An Eastern Roman expedition under Basiliscus (brother of Verina, wife of Leo) sails against the Vandals in Africa with a huge fleet of 1100 ships. In an attempt to secure an agreement, Anthemius marries his only daughter to Ricimer (end of the year).
A Suevic raid in Lusitania.
    Anthemio 468 Basiliscus destroys a Vandal fleet, with 340 ships sunk. Meanwhile the magister militum per Dalmatia Marcellinus recovers Sardinia and parts of Sicliy. A third army under the general Heraclius lands in Africa, captures Tripoli and sets out to attack Carthage, defeating the Vandals in Lybia. However, his fleet is defeated in turn by the Vandals before Cape Mercurius. Then Marcellinus is assassinated in Sicily by one of his officers (August). When Basiliscus hesitates and does not attack, Gaiseric attacks him instead and the Eastern Roman fleet is defeated before Carthage. Heraclius also turns back.
Leo repels an invasion of Dacia by the Huns, probably causing him to begin construction of the 56 km-long 'Anastasian' Long Walls (now Anastasius Suru), 65 km west of Constantinople from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara.

Leo fails to disband all private armies of buccellarii, Isaurians and armed slaves.
Treason of Arvandus in Gaul, who is suspected of rebellion, tried and banished.
    Marciano et Zenone 469 The Visigoths capture Betoregas (Bourges) from the Romans.
Anthemius gives the province Lugdunensis I to the Burgundians to buy their support. Anthemius also allies himself with the Britons, and a British army under Riothamus crosses to Gaul. Riothamus reoccupies Betoregas (Bourges).
The Vandals sack Epirus.
A Suevic raid in Lusitania.
The Isaurian general Tarasicodissa (who takes the name Zeno) is appointed magister militum per Orientem.
    Severo et Iordane 470 The Visigoths begin the occupation of the Auvergne. Arvernis (Clermont) is besieged by Visigoths and Gallo-Romans, while being defended by Gallo-Romans and Burgundians. Euric defeats the British army, after which Riothamus flees to the Burgundians.
The Alamanni invade the provinces Germania I and Belgica I, and are defeated by a coalition of the Roman forces of Syagrius, Childeric of Tournai and Saxon troops under
The former magister officiorum Romanus plots against Anthemius (possibly supported by Ricimer), but is executed, leading to a breach between Ricimer and Anthemius.
After Basiliscus' failure against the Vandals, the Alan magister utriusque militiae Aspar regains influence and has his son Patricius named Caesar by Leo. In Thrace, the magister militum Anastasius revolts, supported by Ardabur, another son of Aspar.
    Leone et Probiano 471 Aspar and his sons Ardabur and Patricius are killed by Leo in his palace. Rebellion by supporters of Aspar, Ostys and Theoderic Strabo, who commands the Ostrogothic federates. A persecution of Aspar's supporters follows, earning Leo the nickname 'Makellos' (the Butcher). Leo then makes Zeno his new magister militum.
A large Roman army under Anthemius' son Anthemiolus enters Gaul but is defeated by Euric on the Rhone - the last occasion when a Roman army from Italy enters Gaul. Roman influence remains around Arvernis (Clermont), Arelate (Arles) and Massiliensis (Marseille). The Visigoths begin blockading Arvernis (Clermont) during the summer. The Gallo-Roman Ecdicius (son-in-law of Avitus) breaks the siege for a while with just 18 cavalry.
Olybrius 472 Festo et Marciano 472 Olybrius is sent to Italy by Leo, officially in support of Anthemius, but with orders for Anthemius to kill him (because Olybrius favoured Gaiseric). Ricimer learns of the plot and proclaims Anicius Olybrius emperor (April). Civil war between Anthemius and Ricimer, the emperor supported by the Romans, Ricimer by his federates under the Scirian Odoacar and the Burgundian Gundobad. The latter is the former magister militum of Gaul, but also the son of Ricimer's sister, and he switches sides to Ricimer. During a three-month siege, Ricimer starves part of the city into submission and gains the rest by treachery. Ricimer finally conquers Rome (July 1) and his troops plunder the city. A relief army under Bellomer is defeated outside the city. Anthemius is caught fleeing the city disguised as a beggar and he is executed by Gundobad in a church (July 11). Accession of Olybrius. Within a month, the great warlord and patrician Ricimer dies of fever or an ulcer (August 18). Olybrius names Ricimer's nephew Gundobad magister militum. Death of Olybrius of dropsy after just 6 months in office (October 22). Gundobad is now the most powerful figure in the West.
Euric's dux Hispaniarum Vicentius captures Pamplona, Zaragossa and most cities of the last Spanish province of Taragonensis.
Glycerius 473-4 Leone 473 Gundobad elevates the comes domesticorum Glycerius to the rank of Augustus (March 3), but without approval of Leo, who appoints Julius Nepos as general of an expeditionary army to oust Glycerius.
Euric occupies the Berry region, and sends his general (still called magister militum) Vincentius to invade Italy. However, the latter is defeated by Gundobad's Gothic commanders Alla and Sindila. Euric however manages to occupy Arelate (Arles) and Massiliensis (Marseille).
Glycerius sends an army to hinder the Ostrogoths under Vidimer from entering Italy, transferring them to Gaul instead, where they are attacked by several enemy groups.
Leo appoints Thodoric Strabo as magister militum praesentalis. He is challenged by another group of Ostrogoths under Theodemir's son Theodoric.
Leo II
474-5 (480)
Leone et Zenone 474 Death of Leo of dysentery (January 18), aged 73. Accession of his grandson Flavius Leo at age 7. His father Flavius Zeno is crowned co-emperor (February 9).
Gundobad returns to Gaul to sucure his succession as king of the Burgundians after the death of his father Gundioc, and never returns to Italy.
Julius Nepos is named emperor by Zeno. He sails to Ostia, where Glycerius surrenders without a fight (June 24). Glycerius abdicates and become bishop of Salonae (Salona). Nepos is also recognised by Syagrius. Nepos concludes a treaty with Euric (worked out by bishops, not Imperial officials!), restoring the Provence back to the Empire, and Arelate (Arles) and Massiliensis (Marseille) are regained by the western Empire. After a 4-year blockade, Arvernis (Clermont) falls to the Visigoths.
Nepos appoints Ecdicius (who is in effect a refugee from Gaul) as magister militum instead of Gundobad. At some point Orestes is appointed as patrician.
Death of Leo II (November 17), leaving Zeno sole emperor. Treaty between Zeno and Gaiseric. Death of Theodemir, he is succeeded by his son
Theodoric as king of the Ostrogoths.
Leone 475 A rebellion by Theodoric Strabo, the Isaurian general Illus and Leo's widow Verina in favour of her brother Basiliscus forces the emperor Zeno to flee to Antioch (January). Flavius Basiliscus is hailed emperor in his place (August 9).
In Gaul, Nepos grants the Auvergne to Euric in order to negotiate a treaty, thereby legalising the Roman loss of Gaul.
The Frankish comes Arbogast takes command of Belgica I from his capital at Treverorum (Trier).
Under circumstances that remain unclear, the magister militum Orestes sends an army against Nepos, who takes control of Ravenna. Orestes then moves against Ravenna (August 28) and Nepos flees to Salona in Dalmatia. Accession of Orestes' son
Romulus Augustus (also known as 'Augustulus or 'little Augustus') at age 10 or 14 (October 31).
    Basilisco et Armato 476 Basiliscus soon loses the support of the population, his sister Verina and his ally Illus, who changes sides to Zeno. Zeno marches on Constantinople with an Isaurian army (August), after Basiliscus' army defects to Zeno. Basiliscus is deposed and exiled to Phrygia (August), where Zeno starves him to death. Theodoric Strabo continues to rebel, combining forces with Theodoric Amaling.
In Italy, the Eastern Germanic troops elect the Scirian Odoacar as their king after Orestes refuses them a third of all the land in Italy (August 23). Odoacar captures and kills Orestes near Placentia (Piacenza) on August 28. Then he takes Ravenna, where he kills Orestes' brother Paulus (September 4). Romulus is deposed and pensioned off to Naples (he still lived in 511) by Odoacar (September 4). Odoacar is recognised by Zeno, but forced to accept Nepos as legal emperor (who remains in Dalmatia). Odoacar sends the vestis regia to Constantinople and rules as rex Italia.
The Provence is also ceded to Euric, the last province of Gaul is now lost to the Romans.
    Basilisco et Armato 477 Death of Gaiseric, king of the Vandals, he is succeeded by his son Huneric.
Theodoric Strabo is reappointed by Zeno, but Theodoric Amaling ravages Macedonia.
    Illo 478 Verina plots against Illus, and the latter imprisons her on the orders of Zeno.
    Zenone 479 Verina entices her son-in-law Flavius Marcianus (son of Anthemius) to rebel against Zeno, supported by his brothers Procopius Anthemius, Romulus and the Gothic troops of Theodoric Strabo, claiming that he has a better right to the throne. With the help of Strabo, Marcianus manages to take Constantinople, but then he is quickly defeated by Illus, taken captive and forcibly ordained as a priest. His brothers flee to Italy.
    Basilio 480 Nepos (last West Roman emperor) prepares to return to Italy, but he is killed by his own soldiers, probably at the instigation of his personal bishop Glycerius (April 25). Odoacar then invades Dalmatia, and defeats an army led by Odiva or Ovida (December 9).
The Thuringians plunder Batavis (Passau) and threaten the cities of Noricum.
An earthquake destroys parts of Rome and Constantinople.
    Placidio 481 Zeno executes his best general, Sabinianus.
Theodoric Strabo dies in an accident, and most of his Goths join the group of Theodoric Amaling, who now becomes the rex Gothorum and the most powerful man on the Balkans.
    Severino et Traundio 482 year
    Fausto 483 The magister militum per Orientem Illus is ordered to release Zeno's brother Longinus, who is still a hostage. Illus refuses and is dismissed.
Leontius 484-8 Venantio et Theudorico 484 Rebellion of Illus and Verina, Zeno sends an army under the Isaurian general Leontius against them. The rebels however manage to make him change sides and name him emperor (July 19). Illus releases Marcianus and sends him to Italy to get support from Odoacar. Zeno uses his Germanic federates to defeat his enemies. He entices the Rugians to attack Odoacar, and an army under Iohannes Skytha and Theodoric is sent east. This force drives Illus from Antioch after an occupation of just 12 days (August 8). Iohannes then besieges Illus at Papirius. Verina dies in the first year of the siege.
Huneric, king of the Vandals dies, and is succeeded by his nephew
Death of Peroz I in battle against the Hephtalite (White) Huns, who rout the complete Sassanian army. He is succeeded by his brother
Balash (Vologases).
    Symmacho 485 Theodoric, whose army was called back from the war against Illus, raids in Thrace and even threatens Constantinople.
Death of Euric, he is succeeded by his son
Alaric II as king of the Visigoths.
    Decio et Longino 486 Clovis (Chlodwich) and Rachnagar of Cambrai defeat Syagrius at Soissons. Syagrius flees to the Visigoths, who give him up to Clovis. Execution of Syagrius, last Roman ruler in Gaul. His Roman army (exercitus Romanorum) is incorporated into Clovis' Frankish army (exercitus Francorum). The Frankish comes Arbogast, ruler of Belgica I, also submits to Clovis and may have become bishop of Carnotense (Chartres).
    Boetio 487 Odoacar defeats and destroys the Rugians in Noricum. This is the last occasion where a Roman army (in name) operates north of the Alps.
    Dynamio et Sifidio 488 The fortress where Illus and Leontius are besieged falls though betrayal and both are executed in Seleucia-on-Calycadnus.
Theodoric accepts a commission from Zeno to attack Odoacar in Italy. He first drives the Gepids from Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica).
In Persia, Balash is deposed and blinded by the magnates, who choose as his successor his cousin
Khavadh I as king of the Sassanid Persians.
    Probino et Eusebio 489 Theodoric invades Italy. The army of Odoacar is defeated at the Isonzo (August 28) and again at Milan, where it is all but destroyed. Odoacar retreats to Ravenna and Theodoric starts a 4-year siege of the city.
    Fausto et Ariovindo 490 Theodoric defeats an army of Odoacar at the river Adda. He asks Zeno for recognition, but Zeno refuses to send him the vestis regia that he received from Odoacar.
Anastasius 491-518 Olybrio 491 Death of Zeno (April 9). His widow the empress Ariadne elects the elderly Flavius Anastasius 'Dicorus' (Two-Pupils) to become her husband's successor (April 11). She marries him soon after (May 20). After Anastasius dismisses several Isaurian officials, Zeno's brother Longinus begins a rebellion, supported by Isaurian forces. Longinus is defeated and exiled to Egypt, where he starves to death. Anastasius begins a campaign to subdue the Isaurians, who march on Constantinople.
Clovis defeats the Thuringians.
    Anastasio et Rufo 492 Anastasius defeats the Isaurians with his Hunnic and Germanic federates at Kotyaion. A 7-year war follows.
    Albino et Eusebio 493 Odoacar surrenders to Theodoric, but is killed at a banquet (March 15), aged 58.
Bulgars raid across the Danube, causing Anastasius to repair the 56 km-long 'Anastasian' Long Walls originally built by Leo.
    Asterio et Praesidio 494 year
    Viatore 495 year
    Viatoris 496 The Alamanni raid deep into the territory of the Burgundians. Death of the king of the Vandals Gunthamund at age 46, succeeded by his brother Thrasamund.
The Franks raid Saintes.
Clovis barely wins a battle against the Alamanni at Tolbiacum (Zülpich). End of the Alamannic kingdom.
In Persia, Kavadh I is deposed and imprisoned after a failed attempt to break the power of the magnates. He is succeeded by his younger brother
Djamasp (Zamaspes).
    Viatoris et Paulo 497 Anastasius recognises Theodoric as king of Italy and sends the vestis regia back to Rome.
    Paulino 498 The Franks raid Burdigala (Bordeaux).
    Paulini et Iohanne 499 Anastasius subjugates the last Isaurians, who are henceforth employed in the Roman army. Many are deported to Thrace.
Bulgars, together with the Slavic Antes and remains of the Huns, defeat a Roman army.
In Persia, Kavadh I regains the throne with the aid of the Hephtalite Huns.
    Patricio et Ypatio 500 Clovis fights the Burgundians at the battle of Aedunense (Dijon) but fails to subdue them.

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