|Decio et Grato
||Gaius Messius Quintus
Decius) liberates Dacia from the Carpi.
The Franks penetrate Germania and Gaul.
The Alamanni penetrate the Upper Danube area.
The Goths under Cniva invade Moesia and Thrace,
besiege Philippolis. Decius surprises
them and they are routed. However, the Goths
regroup and surprise Decius at Beroia (BeroŽ),
destroying their camp and dispersing the troops,
forcing a Roman emperor to flee for the first
time. The Goths then sack Philippolis.
While Decius was out of Rome in 250 fighting the
Goths, Julius Valens Licinianus took the purple
in Rome, but he was executed after a few days.
The Roman ruler of the East, Titus Julius Priscus (governor of Macedonia and
brother of the late emperor Philippus Arabs) is proclaimed emperor and
is supported by the Goths.
Decius' son Herennius Etruscus breaks the siege of Nikopolis.
|Decio et Rustico
||The Goths are returning
home when Decius attacks them again. In the
Battle of Abrittus (Hisarlak, near
Razgrad) on July 1, the Goths defeat the Romans
in a swamp; Decius and his son Herennius are
killed in battle. Decius' son Gaius Valens Hostilianus
Messius Quintus (Hostilianus) succeeds to the
throne but dies of plague. Gaius Vibius Trebonianus
succeeds him (June) and promises tribute to the
Goths. He elevates his son Gaius Vibius
Volusianus to the position of co-emperor and
probably ends the rule of Priscus in the East
around this time.
||Gallo et Volusiano
||Shapur I conquers Armenia. The
Romans are defeated at Barbalissos and
the Persians control part of Syria.
|Volusiano et Maximo
||The Persians take Antioch,
plunder it and burn it down. This may be the time
when Lucius Julius Aurelius Sulpicius Severus
Uranius Antoninus is a short-lived usurper in
The Carpi and Burgundians cross over to Asia
Minor and raid Ephesos and Pessinus.
The Marcomanni invade Pannonia.
Marcus Aemillius Aemilianus refuses to pay tribute but
defeats the Goths north of the Danube. He is then
proclaimed emperor by the grateful troops (July).
Aemilianus then enters Italy before Gallus can
stop him; Gallus and Volusianus are killed at Forum
Flaminii (in August) by their remaining
troops, who defect to Aemilianus.
The forces in Raetia then elevate Publius Licinius Valerianus (Valerian) to the purple.
Aemilianus is in turn killed by his troops who
defect to Valerian. Valerian makes his son Publius Licinius Egnatius
||Valeriano et Gallieno
||Germanic tribes invade
Gallienus defeats the Germans on the Rhine with
the aid of troops from the British garrison.
||Maximo et Gabrione (Glabrio)
||The Goths invade Asia Minor,
in sea-borne raids they plunder Nikopolis,
Nikaia and Prusa in Bithynia.
Fall of Dura Europos to the Sassanids (approx.).
Gallienus campaigns against the Carpi and Goths
Valerian forces the Persians from Syria.
Franks invade Gaul and reach as far as Spain,
where they destroy Terraco (Tarragona).
The Alamanni invade Italy, but are defated by
Gallienus near Milan.
The Goths ravage Asia Minor as far as Trabzon.
Valerian forces the Persians out of Cappadocia.
||Tusco et Basso
||Gallienus probably creates
a central reserve from a number of cavalry
vexillations which acts as a mobile field army.
||Marcelliano (Aemilianus) et
||War with Sassanid Persia.
Shapur I captures the emperor Valerian, the only
Roman emperor ever taken captive alive by non-Romans
until Romanos IV Diogenes was taken captive by the
Seljuq Turks on the plains of Manzikirt in 1071.
Germanic tribes invade Gaul and reach Spain and
Italy. Aquae Mattiacorum (Wiesbaden)
captured by the Alamanni. Aventicum (Avenches)
|Seculare (Saecularis) et
(Postumus and Honoratianus in Gaul)
||Gallienus becomes sole
emperor. Usurpation of Ingenuus in Pannonia, who is
defeated by Gallienus, who then campaigns against
the Alamanni in Italy, defeating them (midsummer).
Surviving troops of Ingenuus rebel again under
Regalianus, who fights the invading Sarmatian
Roxolani and is probably killed by them.
Syria, Egypt and Palestine break away (before
September 17) from the Empire under the usurpers Tiberius Fulvius Iunius
(minor) and Tiberius Inius Fulvius
Shapur destroys Caesarea Mazaca in Asia
Minor, but is defeated by the praefectus
praetorio Ballista. Gallienus develops a
cavalry army as central reserve and mobile field
Marcus Cassianius Latinius
probably the commander of the Rhine garrison,
rebels and lays siege to Colonia (Cologne).
The provinces of Gaul, Germania and Raetia become
the Imperium Galliarum (Gallic Empire)
breaking away from the rest of the Roman Empire.
The Juthungi are defeated by Roman troops in
Raetia, who manage to free thousands of Italian
captives (April 24/25).
||Gallieno et Gentiano (Volusianus)
(Postumus in Gaul, Macrianus and Quietus in
||Macrianus maior and his son
Macrianus minor march to Europe but are defated
in Thrace by Gallienus' general Aureolus, after
which their troops kill both of them.
Quietus flees to Edessa (Homs) but is
killed there by the inhabitants. Odenathus then
Britain and Spain join Postumus' rebellion.
||Gallieno et Victorino (Faustianus)
(Postumus in Gaul)
||Septimus Odenathus of Palmyra is
recognized as dux and imperator
by Gallienus and campaigns against the Sassanids,
relieving Edessa, recovering Nisibis (Nusaybin),
and besieging the Persian capital Ctesiphon
on two occasions.
In Egypt, Lucius Mussius Aemilianus, supporter of the
Macrianii, proclaims himself emperor. He is
executed by Gallienus' general Aurelius Theodotus
(before March 30, 262).
||Albino et Maximo (Dexter)
||The Franks gain control of
the Scaldis (Scheldt) area. The area of
the Limes east of the Rhine and noth of the
Danube (agri decumates) is gradually
evacuated by Rome and gradually taken over by the
||Valeriano et Lucillo
||Gallienus twice fails to
defeat Postumus, though he recaptures Raetia and
besieges Postumus in Gaul, but retreats after
being wounded by an arrow.
||Gallenio et Sabinillo
||Paterno et Archesilao
||Death of Odenathus, reign
of his widow Zenobia (267-72). A series of
conquests enlarged the Palmyran Empire with large
parts of Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine and
The Goths sack Athens, the Heruli sack Byzantium.
they retreat through Boiotia. They are defeated
by Gallienus on the river Nestos in Macedonia.
|Paterno et Marino (Marinianus)
(Postumus in Gaul)
||Gallienus defeats the Goths
(April). Gallienus, aided by Claudius and
Aurelian, again defeats the Goths in September,
but after the victory his cavalry commander Manius Acilius Aureolus rebels and declares for
Postumus. However, the latter does not support
him. Gallienus besieges Aureolus at Milan, but in
a plot he is lured away from the city and is
murdered, together with his brother Valerian and
his son Marianus. Claudius succeeds him as Marcus Aurelius Claudius (Claudius II, Claudius
Gothicus), even though he is of barbarian birth.
Claudius defeats and kills Aureolus. In November,
Claudius defeats the Alamanni at the battle of Lake
Benacus (Lake Garda) in northern Italy.
|Claudio et Paterno
||The Goths attack several
cities on the Black Sea coast, before entering
the Aegean and besieging Thessalonica. The Heruli
capture Athens. While Aurelian blocks a Gothic
force along the Danube, Claudius defeats the
Goths at Naissus (Ni).
Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus rebels against Postumus
and takes Mogontiacum (Mainz), but is
defeated. After refusing them to sack the city,
Postumus is murdered by his troops, who elevate Marcus Aurelius Marius to the throne. After two
days Marcus Piavvonius
is proclaimed at Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
and kills Marius. The Spanish provinces do not
recognise him and return their allegiance to
From around this year, he Romans gradually pull
back from the Lower Rhine.
|Antiociano et Orfito
||Death of Claudius of plague
in January. The Senate proclaims Claudius'
brother Marcus Aurelius Claudius
emperor, but after a short reign (a few days to a
month) he is probably killed by the troops, whose
favorite is Lucius Domitianus
(Aurelian). Aurelian expells the Sarmatians,
Iuthungi and Vandals from Italy (Fall).
||Valeriano (Aurelian) et Basso
||In January, Aurelian
campaigns against the Alamanni. His army is
defeated near Placentia, but he then
defeats them in the battle of Fano near Ticinum,
before routing them near Pavia.
Aurelian initiates the contruction of the walls
of Rome, Athens, Milete, Nikaia, Verona, Salona,
Pisaurum and Fanum.
Aurelian evacuates Dacia, withdrawing the troops
back to the Danube.
Victorinus is murdered at Colonia (Cologne)
and Claudius Pius Esuvius
is proclaimed in Burdigala (Bordeaux) in
||Quieto et Veldomiano
(Tetricus in Gaul)
||Aurelian defeats the
Palmyrene army near Antioch and Emesa (Homs),
and after a siege conquers the city of Palmyra,
capturing queen Zenobia and ending the Palmyrene
Empire. Aurelian spares her life.
Death of Shapur I, king of Persia. He is
succeeded by his son Hormizd I.
||Tacito et Placidiano
(Tetricus in Gaul)
||Aurelian defeats the Carpi
on the Danube.
Palmyra is sacked after a final rebellion.
Tetricus I elevates his son Tetricus to caesar.
Death of Hormizd I, king of Persia. He is
succeeded by his brother Bahram I.
||Aureliano et Capitulino
(Tetricus in Gaul)
||Returning from the East,
Aurelian invades Gaul and defeats the Tetricii at
the battle of apud catalaunos (Ch‚lons-sur-Marne).
While both Tetricii surrender to him, their
betrayed troops fight on but are defeated at
great cost. Aurelian puts both father and son
Tetricus on display in Rome, but they are spared
and pardoned. A last usurper against the Tetricii,
Faustinus, is quickly defeated, ending the Gallic
Aurelian establishes Sol Invictus as
state religion of the Empire.
||Aureliano et Marcello (Marcellinus)
||Aurelian is murdered by his
praetorian guard in September. For weeks after
Aurelian's death, there is no emperor, and
Aurelian's widow the augusta Ulpia
Severina rules in her own right. Marcus Claudius Tacitus is then elected by the
senate to succeed Aurelian (winter).
The Franks invade Germania Inferior.
|Tacitus and Aemilianus
||Tacitus first moves against
the barbarians (former allies of Aurelian) who
started rampaging in the East. He then defeats
the Alans near the Palus Maeotis,
defeats the Goths in Cilicia, but is assassinated
at Tyana in Cappadocia (June). He is
succeeded for 88 days by his half-brother Marcus Annius Florianus. He fights the Heruli but
then the eastern provinces elevate Marcus Aurelius Probus to the throne. Probus
avoided pitched battle, but mutinous troops kill
Florianus near Tarsus. Probus is now sole emperor
Death of Bahram I, king of Persia. He is
succeeded by his son Bahram II.
||Probo et Paulino
||Probus defeats the Goths
while on his way West. Probus defeats the Franks,
Longiones and Alamanni in Gaul and pushes them
back across the Rhine. Probus defeats the
Burgundians and Vandals and expells them from
defeats Sarmatians in Illyria and Goths in Thrace
(278). Probus ends a rebellion of the Isaurians,
takes Cremna in Pisidia.
against the Blemmyans in Upper Egypt.
||Messala et Grato
||Siege of Apameia (Afamia).
The people of Lugdunum support the
usurpation of Proculus, but he is betrayed by the
Franks, handed over to Probus and executed. After
a defeat, the commander of the Rhine fleet Bonosus proclaims himself emperor
in Cologne. He is defeated and commits suicide.
Probus settles Bastarnae in Thrace.
||Probo et Tiberiano
||Usurpation and death of Julius Saturninus in Syria, probably to
satisfy his troops, who however murder him before
Probus can react.
||Probo et Victurino
||While preparing for war
with Persia, Marcus Numerius Carus is proclaimed emperor.
Probus' troops defect to Carus, the remainder
murder him in Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica).
Carus defeats the Sarmatians in Pannonia.
|Caro et Carino
||Carus defeats the
Sarmatians and the Quadi on the Danube. He then
invades Persia by way of Armenia, marches down
the Tigris, defeats the armies of Bahram II, takes the Persian capital
Ctesiphon and marches even further.
However, he suddenly dies (of illness or struck
by lightning?) in his camp near Ctesiphon,
December. His sons Marcus Aurelius Carinus (West) and Marcus Aurelius Numerianus (East) succeed him.
Carinus defeats the Quadi and other Germans in
Germania Superior and Raetia.
||Caro et Numeriano
||Carinus campaigns in
While retreating from the East, Numerian also
dies from illness in November. The troops
proclaim the commander of the bodyguard Valerius
Diocles (or as he became known; Gaius Aurelius Valerius
Diocletianus), as new emperor on November 20.
Sabinus Iulianus revolts in Pannonia.
||Diocletiano et Aristobolo
||Carinus returns from his
campaign in Britain to defeat the forces of
Iulianus near Verona.
Carinus then confronts Diocletian but is murdered
during the battle of the Margus River (Morawa)
Diocletian is now sole Empeor. He campaigns
against Quadi and Marcomanni.
|Maximo et Aquilino
||First mention of Bagaudae
in Gaul. Their rebellion is crushed by the
Caesars Marcus Aurelius Valerius
Maximianus Herculius (Maximian) and Carausius.
Carausius campaigns against Saxon and Frankish
Revolt of Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus
after accusations of treason, who raises himself
to the rank of Augustus and gains control of
Britain and parts of Gaul (286-293).
Diocletian elevates Maximianus Herculius as co-emperor
on April 1: this division is the start of the
Tetrarchy ('Rule of Four'), or the 'Dominate'
||Diocletiano et Maximiano
against Burgundi, Alamanni, Chaiboni, Heruli and
Franks. Foedus with the Frankish king Gennobaud.
||Maximiano et Ianuario
||Diocletian concludes a
peace-treaty with Bahram II of Persia. He then
campaigns east of the Rhine and north of the
||Basso et Quintiano
||A campaign of Maximian
against Carausius fails. Diocletian fights the
||Diocletiano et Maximiano
||Tiberiano et Dione
||Annibaliano et Asclepiodoto
||Diocletian gives the West
to Maximian. He campaigns against the Sarmatians.
First rebellion of Achilleus in Egypt (292-5).
||Diocletiano et Maximiano
||Diocletian and Maximian
choose Galerius and Constantius as Caesar; each
receive a quarter of the Empire.
Constantius retakes Bononia (Boulogne)
by building a mole across the harbour, and then
regains northern Gaul by subjugating the
Chamavians and Frisians.
Carausius is killed by his rationalis summae
Death of Bahram II, king of Persia, after
another defeat by the Armenian king Tiridates III. He is succeeded by his
son Bahram III, who dies after just 4
months without any children. He is succeeded by Narseh (Narses).
||Constantio et Maximo
||Constantius fights the
Alamanni, Galerius fights the Sarmatian Iazyges.
||Tusco et Anulio
||Galerius is defeated near Ctesiphon
by the Sassanid Persians, and Mesopotamia is lost.
||Diocletiano et Constantio
Allectus. His praefectus praetorio Asclepiodotus lands near Southampton,
and marches to London. Allectus attacks him near Calleva
(Silchester) and is defeated. Constantius takes
London and thus ends the rebellion.
Second rebellion of Achilleus in Egypt (296-7).
||Maximiano et Maximiano
||Diocletian ends the
rebellion in Egypt.
Galerius defeats the Carpi, Bastarni and Goths on
the Lower Danube.
Galerius is then beaten by the Sassanid Persians
between Carrhae and Callinicum.
Maximian fights Moors in Spain and African tribes
||Fausto et Gallo
against the Alamanni, defeating the Lingones.
Galerius defeats the Sassanids and regains
Mesopotamia. Peace-treaty of Nisibis (Nusaybin)
between Diocletian and Narseh. In exchange for the
capital Ctesiphon, Rome also regains the
Persian provinces of Armenia.
Christians are expelled from the Roman army.
In a winter campaign, Constantius beats the
Alamanni at Langres and Vindonissa (Windisch).
Galerius defeats the Marcomanni and Sarmatians.
||Diocletiano et Maximiano
||Galerius defeats the Carpi
||Constantio et Maximiano