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Late Roman Timeline
301 AD - 400 AD

By Robert Vermaat

Late Roman Timeline 250-550 AD

Emperor* Reigned Consuls Year Events
Titiano et Nepotiano 301 Diocletian issues his Price Edict to curb inflation.
Armenia is the first nation to accept Christianity as state religion.
    Constantio et Maximiano 302 Death of Narseh, king of Persia, he is succeeded by his son Hormizd II.
Eugenius 303 Diocletiano et Maximiano 303 Eugenius, a tribune of 500 men stationed in Seleucia, is raised to the purple and marches on Antioch. In the ensuing battle, he dies. While Diocletian and Galerius enforce the law rigidly, Maximian and Constantius are much more tolerant.
    Diocletiano et Maximiano 304 Edicts against the Christians, start of wide-ranging persecutions.
Constantius I
Constantio et Maximiano 305 Diocletian abdicates and forces Maximian to do the same (May 1). New Augusti are Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius ('Chlorus') and Galerius Maximianus. Their Cesars are Severus and Maximinus Daia. Galerius campaigns against the Sarmatians.
Constantine I
Severus II
Diocletiano et Constantino 306 Constantius I dies at Eburacum (York) while on campaign in Britain (July 23). His troops proclaim his son Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus as his successor (July 25), and he is accepted by Galerius as Caesar, who proclaims Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus. Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius (son of Maximianus Herculius) is likewise proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian guard (October 28). Galerius refuses to acknowledge him and sends Severus to end the usurpation. Maximian also returns from abdication in support of his son, who then invests his father once more with the purple to win over Severus' troops).
    Diocletiano et Maximo 307 Severus reaches Rome in February, and starts a siege of the city. But after Maxentius bribes them, most of his troops go over to Maxentius. Severus retreats to Ravenna. Severus then abdicates and surrenders to Maximian who puts him under house arrest, but later has him killed (November 11). Galerius' campaign against Maxentius also fails.
Maximinus II
Diocletiano et Maximo 308 Constantine marries the daughter of Maximian (March 31) but refuses to be drawn into the war bewteen Galerius and Maxentius. Maximian tries to take the purple from his son but his troops defect, after which he opts for a return of Diocletian. Diocletian, Maximian and Galerius meet in Carnuntum. Diocletian refuses to return from his abdication. Galerius elevates Flavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius to the rank of Augustus (November 11). Galerius' nephew Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus ('Daia') is also elevated to Augustus.
Revolt in Africa of the vicarius Africae
Lucius Domitius Alexander, when Maxentius demands his son as hostage.
    Diocletiano et Maximo 309 Constantine campaigns against the Bructeri, builds a bridge at Colonia (Cologne). The Spanish provinces also revolt against Maxentius and proclaim Constantine as emperor.
Death of Hormizd II,
Shapur II becomes king of Persia in utero.
In Africa, the praefectus praetorio Rufius Volusianus and the paucissimis cohortibus Zenas end the rebellion of Alexander and execute him.
    Maximiano et Licinio 310 Maximian then unsuccessfully tries to depose Constantine. In Arelate (Arles), Maximian once more proclaims himself emperor when Constantine is away fighting the Franks (July), but Constantine returns too fast to mount a defence. Maximian is soon captured by Constantine in Marseille, is forced to abdicate once more but pardoned. After a plot to kill him fails, Constantine forces Maximian to commit suicide (July).
    Constantino et Licinio 311 Galerius dies of illness (May 5). Licinius issues the Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of the Christians.
Maxentius recovers Africa.
Maximinus gains control of Asia.
    Constantino et Licinio 312 Constantine invades Italy, defeats Maxentius at Turin and Brescia. Final battle and death of Maxentius at the battle of the Milvian Bridge (October 28). Constantine is sole Augustus in the West.
    Volusiano et Aniano 313 Maximinus is defeated by Licinius at the battle of Campus Ergenus (Tzirallum) and flees to Tarsus (April 30). Licinius is now sole Augustus in the East. Constantine campaigns against the Franks on the Lower Rhine (early summer). Diocletian dies in Salonae (Summer), the only emperor ever to have voluntary retired. Maximinus Daia dies in Tarsus (early Fall).
    Constantino et Licinio 314 year
    Sabino et Rufo 315 year
Valens 316-7 Gallicano et Basso 316 War with Licinius. Constantine defeats Licinius on October 8 near Cibalae in Pannonia, but a second battle Camous Ardiensis in Thrace is undecided. Licinius appoints Aurelius Valerius Valens as his co-emperor (early December).
    Licinio et Crispo 317 Licinius is defeated at Campus Ardiensis (between December 1, 316 and February 28, 317). Licinius agrees to cease hostilities with Constantine and is forced to execute his collegue Valens, and cede Illyria to Constantine. On March 1, Constantine elevates his sons Flavius Julius Crispus (age 12) and Constantine, Licinius his son Licinius to the rank of Caesar, the latter being but babies.
    Constantino et Licinio caes. 318 year
    Constantino et Constantio caes. 319 Colchis (Georgia) accepts Christianity as main religion.
    Crispo et Constantio caes. 320 Crispus defeats the Franks.
    Probiano et Iuliano 321 On March 7, Constantine declares his dies Solis Invicti as the day of rest.
    Severo et Rufino 322 Constantine defeats the Sarmatians under Rausimod near Campona (early Summer).
    Crispo et Constantino 323 Constantine defeats the Goths in Thrace (Spring). Crispus defeats the Alamanni (October).
Martinianus 324 Paulino et Iuliano 324 Renewed war with Licinius. Constantine defeats Licinius (July 3) at Adrianople. Licinius retreats to Byzantium. There, he makes his magister officiorum Sextus Marcius Martinianus an Augustus. Constantine totally defeats Licinius at Chrysopolis (September 18). Crispus defeats Licinius' naval forces between Byzantium and Chrysopolis, allowing Constantine to gain the Asiatic provinces. Licinius surrenders in Nicomedia, and he and Martinianus are exiled. Constantine is now sole Augustus of the Roman Empire. Constantine elevates another son, Constantius, to the rank of Caesar (November 8). On the same day he lays out the boundaries for a new capital at Byzantium.
    Constantino et Constantio 325 Plot and execution of Licinius in Thessalonica. Constantine also ordered the execution of Licinius (son of Licinius and Constantia, Constantine's half-sister) and Martinianus.
    Constantio et Maximo 326 Execution of Crispus in Pola (March). Execution of Fausta (second wife of Constantine) in November.
    Ianuario et Iusto 327 year
    Constantino et Constantio 328 Constantine II defeats the Alamanni. The new walls of Byzantium are completed.
    Constantio et Symmacho 329 year
    Basso et Ablabio 330 Constantine refounds Byzantium as new capital of the Roman Empire under the new name Constantinople (May 11).
    Pacatiano et Hilariano 331 year
    Dalmatio et Zenophilo 332 Constantine II defeats the Goths (February 18). The Goths remain quiet until 365.
Calocaerus 333-4 Optato et Paulino 333 On Cyprus, the magister pecoris camelorum Calocaerus revolts and takes up the purple. Constantine elevates his fourth son Constans to the rank of Caesar (December 25).
    Constantio et Albino 334 Flavius Dalmatius 'the Censor' (half-brother of Constantine I) puts down the revolt in Cyprus by Calocaerus. Constantius II defeats the Sarmatians (early Summer) and settles 30.000 of them in Italy and Gaul.
    Nepotiano et Facundo 335 Constantine elevates his cousins Dalmatius Minor and Hannibalianus Minor to Caesar and King of Pontus.
    Feliciano et Titiano 336 Constantine regains most of Dacia.
Constantine II
Constantius II
Urso et Polemio 337 After Easter (April 3), Constantine falls ill. Nevertheless, he prepares for war with the Sassanid king Shapur II. Constantine travels to Nicomedia and is baptised a Christian. On May 22, whilst in Ancyro near Nicomedia, Constantine dies. It takes three months of interregnum (during which the army rebels) before the sons of Constantine succeed their father on September 9: Flavius Claudius Constantinus, Flavius Julius Constantius and Flavius Julius Constans.
    Constantio et Constante 338 In the purges that follow, the army executes most male family members of Constantine between January and March, amongst them Dalmatius Minor, Hannibalianus Minor, their father Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius (younger halfbrother to Constantine) and one of his sons. Two other sons were spared (Gallus and Julian), apart from the sons of Constantine, now the new emperors. During high summer in Viminacium, they divide the Empire. Constantius II holds the East, Constans the middle, but under guardianship of Constantine II, who holds the West.
Shapur besieges Nisibis (Nusaybin).
    Acyndio et Proculo 339 Constans defeats the Sarmatians (Spring) and defies his older brother Constantine. He cedes Thrace to Constantius.
War with Persia (until 361). Constantius achieves no results of significance in nine major battles in the areas of Singara, Sisaurana, Bezabde, Amida (Diyarbekir) and three sieges of Nisibis (Nusaybin).
    Marcellino et Probino 340 Still in winter, Constantine refuses to relinquish the guardianship of Constans. He invades Italy, but is defeated in early April at Aquileia and killed in battle. Contans is now sole ruler of the West.
    Constantio et Constante 341 year
    Placido et Romulo 342 Constans settles the Salians Franks in the area south of the Lower Rhine, from Batavia to Toxandria.
    Leontio et Salustio 343 Constans visits Britain in winter, probably because of a military emergency.
Constantius invades Adiabene in Mesopotamia.
    Constantio et Constante 344 In the battle of Singara (Balad-Sinjar), Shapur destroys most of Constantius' army.
    Amantio et Albino 345 year
    Amantio et Albino 346 Shapur besieges Nisibis (Nusaybin).
    Rufino et Eusebio 347 year
    Philippo et Sallia 348 year
    Limenio et Catulino 349 year
Sergio et Nigriniano 350 On January 18, Flavius Magnus Magnentius (commander of the Ioviani and Herculiani) is proclaimed emperor by the troops at Augustodunum Haeduorum (Autun). Constans is abandoned by all and flees south, but is overtaken in a fortress near Helena, close to the Pyrennees. A troop of light cavalry drags him from a temple and kills him (end of February). On March 1, the magister peditum Vetranio was asked to claim the purple by Constantia, sister of Constans and Constantine II. On June 3, Flavius Julius Popilius Nepotianus Constantinus (son of Eutropia, daughter of Constantius I) does the same in Italy. He attacks Rome with a band of gladiators, but is defeated by Magnentius' magister officiorum Marcellinus on June 30. He and his mother are killed, his head put on a spear and carried around Rome.
Meanwhile Constantius II breaks off his Persian campaign and marches west. Vetriano submits to Constantius on December 25 and is stripped of the purple, but spared.
Shapur besieges Nisbis.
    Sergio et Nigriniano 351 Magnentius elevates (his brother?) Magnus Decentius to the rank of Caesar (January), Constantius does the same with his first cousin Constantius Gallus, who is the son of Julius Constantius and half-brother to Julian, and who become Caesar of the East (March 15). Magnentius defeats Constantius at Atrans (Trojane), but is beaten in the battle of Mursa (Ossijek) on September 28, one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history. Magnentius retreats back to Gaul. Italy breaks away and joins Constantius.
The Palestinian Jews revolt against Gallus. Their 'king' Patricius occupies Tiberias and Diospolis (Lod). The rebellion has to be suppressed by the magister equitum Ursicinus.
    Constantio et Constante 352 Constantius enters Italy (early Fall). Decentius is defeated by invading Alamanni under Chnodomar.
    Constantio et Constantio 353 Magnentius is finally beaten at Mons Seleuci (Saleon) in the Cottian Alps and commits suicide in Lugdunum (Lyon) on August 10, followed by Decentius (August 18). Constantius is now sole ruler of the Roman Empire. He sends agents such as Paulus 'Catena' (the Chain) to the reconquered provinces to sniff out supporters of Magnentius by all means possible.
In the East, the Sassanid Persians are engaged in several wars with nomads peoples, such as the Chionites (353-8).
    Constantio et Constante 354 Constantius campaigns from Augusta Raurica (Augst) against the Alamanni (Spring to Summer). The inhabitants of Antioch complain to Constantius about Gallus' violent and cruel actions. Gallus is deposed, arrested and killed while on his way to Rome in Pola (November).
Silvanus 355 Arbitione et Luliano 355 Constantius campaigns against the Alamanni, defeating them at the battle of Campi Canini near Lacus Brigantinus (Lake Constance/Bodensee) in early Summer. Court intrigues force the magister peditum Claudius Silvanus to usurp the throne (August 11). Son of the Frank general who aided Constantine I, he becomes a victim of court intirigues. As a last resort he rebels, but he is killed at the instigation of the magister equitum Ursicinus after just 28 days (September 7). The Franks invade across the Lower Rhine, fall of Colonia (Cologne) after a 10-month siege in the late Fall. Constantius elevates his last remaining cousin Julianus (Julian) to the rank of Caesar (November 6), he is sent to Gaul (December).
    Constantio et Iuliano caes. 356 Constantius campaigns against the Alamanni on the Upper Rhine (Summer to Fall). Julian is defeated in the battle of Durocortorum (Reims) and besieged in Agedincum (Sens) by the Alamanni (December 1).
    Constantio et Iuliano caes. 357 Constantius enters Rome (April 28). Julian campaigns in Gaul against hostile forces. Campaign of Julian and the magister peditum Barbatio fails at Augusta Raurica (Augst). Julian defeats the Alamanni at Argentorate (Strasbourg), captures Chnodomar (August).
Gallic Laeti plunder the countryside around Lugdunum (Lyon) and almost take the city.
    Titiano et Cereale 358 Constantius defeats the Sarmatians, Quadi and then again the Sarmatian Limigantes in the area of Valeria-Pannonia II. Barbatio defats the Juthungi in Raetia. Julian fights several groups of Franks and Alamanni, defeats the Chamavi and re-settles the displaced Salian Franks as federates in Toxandria.
    Eusebio et Epatio 359 Constantius defeats the Limigantes again at Acumincum (Slankamen) in the Spring, while Julian frees many towns and cities along the Rhine, forcing the Alamanni to sue for peace. The magister peditum Barbatio is executed as a result of court intigues.
Shapur II starts a campaign against the Romans. He besieges Amida (Diyarbekir) and conquers the city after a siege of 73 days, after which the defenders and inhabitants are massacred (Summer-Fall). The magister militum Ursicinus is blamed for the failed defence of the city and dismissed.
Julian II 360-3 Constantio et Iuliano caes. 360 Shapur conquers Singara and Bezabde. (January-March).
The magister per Gallias Lucipinus campaigns in Britain against the Picts and Scotti (January-February).
Constantius wants more units from the Gallic army for his campaign. As a result,
Flavius Claudius Julianus (Julian II) is elevated to emperor by his troops in Paris (February).
    Tauro et Florentio 361 The comes Libino fails in battle near Säckingen (late Winter). Capture of the Alaman king Wadomar (Spring).
Julian departs from Augusta Raurica (Augst) against Constantine (July) and conquers Illyria (October). Constantine confronts Julian but dies of illness in Mopsucrenae in Cilicia (November 3) at 44, leaving Julian sole emperor.
    Mamertino et Nevitta 362 year
Jovian 363-4 Iuliano et Salustio 363 Julian starts his Persian campaign (March 5), captures and destroys Perisapora (Firoz Shapur, now Anbar) until he defeats the Persians before Ctesiphon (May 29). Unable to besiege the city the Romans turn back (June 16). Within 10 days the rearguard is attacked near Samarra and Julian falls in battle (June 26). Flavius Iovianus (Jovian) is chosen as successor (June 27). Jovian makes peace with Shapur (July) and moves the army back to Asia Minor. As a price for the peace with Persia, Rome loses the satrapies East of the Tigris once conquered by Diocletian, as well as the frontier cities Nisibis (Nusaybin) and Singara.
Valens II
Ioviano et Varoniano 364 Jovian dies in Dadastana (February 17) aged 32. Flavius Valentinianus (a tribune of the scholae) is elected as emperor in Nicaea (February 26). He elevates his brother Flavius Julius Valens as co-emperor in Constantinople (March 28). Partition of the Empire and the army in Naissus (Niš) and Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) during June-August.
Valentinian issues a law forbidding private ownership of weapons.
Procopius 365-6 Valentiniano et Valente 365 The Alamanni invade Gaul, they defeat the comes Charietto near Cabillonum (Châlons-sur-Saône) in January.
Procopius, a cousin of the late Julian, usurps the throne in Constantinople with the help of troops marching home (September 28). Several of Valens´ units defect to Procopius at Mygdus on the river Sangarius (Sakyrna). Valens is nearly captured near Chalcedon.
Marcellus 366 Gratiano et Dagalaifo 366 Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine (January 2). The magister equitum Iovinus (Jovinus) defeats the Alamanni at Scarponna (Charpeigne) and Durocatalaunum (Châlons-en-Champagne) between January-March.
Valens is joined by his magister equitum Flavius Lupicinus and begins a spring offensive. Procopius' general Gomoarius is defeated at Thyatira (Akhisar) and at Nacolia (Seyyid el-Ghazi). Valens meets with Procopius and manages to convince his troops to desert him . Procopius and his last supporters are executed (May 27). Revolt of Marcellus, general of Procopius. He is captured within a short time and executed.
Gratian 367-83 Lupicino et Iovino 367 Valens begins his first war against the Goths under Athanaric (367-9), who had supported Procopius. The Goths flee into the montes Serrorum (Carpathians) and elude Valens.
Supposed invasion of Picts, Scotti and Atacotti in Britain (Summer). The comes maritimi tractus Nectaridus and the dux Fullofaudes are killed or neutralised, while in the meantime Franks and Saxons attacked the Gallic coast. Valentinian sends the comes domesticorum Severus to investigate, but he returns to Valentinian at Amiens, without having achieved anything. Britain, apparently, is in a state of growing anarchy. Valentinian then promotes Severus to magister peditum and sends Jovinus to Britain. Meanwhile, Valentinian falls ill and he has to elevate his oldest son (though only 8)
Flavius Gratianus Augustus to the rank of Augustus in Amiens (August 24). Jovinus also returns from Britain, not having enough manpower to pacify the island. The Alamanni suddenly cross the Rhenus (Rhine) and plunder Mogontiacum (Mainz) near the year's end.
The Persians capture the Armenian king Arsaces and invade Iberia (Georgia).
    Valentiniano et Valente 368 Floods prevent Valens' offensive against the Goths (Spring).
Valentinian and Gratian campaign against the Alamanni and defeat them at Solicinium (Schwetzingen), although Valentinian is almost killed in battle (August-September). Comes
Flavius Theodosius Senior begins his campaign in Britain, landing in Rutupiae (Richborough) and marching to Londinium (London), pacifying the south.
    Valentiniano et Victore 369 Theodosius completes the pacification of the rest of Britain, rallying the scattered units of the former garrison and putting down the rebellion of Valerius. After his return to Gaul, Theodosius is promoted to magister equitum instead of Jovinus.
Valentinian starts his rebuilding of the Rhine Limes (early Summer).
Valens invades Gothic territory a second time from Noviodunum, defeats the Greuthingi before he fights Athanaric's Tervingi at Isaccea (Dobruja), then makes peace (late Summer).
Frithigern becomes king of the Visgoths.
    Valentiniano et Valente 370 After pressing the comes Nannienus hard, the Saxons in N. Gaul are defeated by the magister peditum Severus near Deuso. While Valentinian attempts to make the Burgundians attack the Alamanni, the magister equitum Theodosius campaigns against the Alamanni from Raetia into Germania.
Valentinian settles Alamanni in the Po valley.
Valens supports the Armenian king Pap with his general Arintheus and troops.
    Gratiano et Probo 371 Valens sends a larger force under Traianus and Vadomarius. In answer, Shapur invades Armenia, but his army is defeated at Bagavan. A truce is negotiated.
Valentinian campaigns against the Alamanni. The capture of Macrian, king of the Buccinobantes, fails.
Firmus 372-5 Modesto et Arinteo 372 In Africa, the Moorish prince Firmus claims the title of emperor due to court intrigues by the comes Africae Romanus.
The magister equitum Theodosius Senior campaigns against the Sarmatians.
Valentinian sends the Alamannic king Fraomar with many soldiers to Britain as reinforcements.
    Valentiniano et Valente 373 Valens' magister peditum Traianus defeats the Sassanid Persians near Bagavan (Vagabanta), leading to a 5-year truce while Shapur deals with the Kushans.
The magister equitum Theodosius Senior is sent to Africa to campaign against Firmus, but also to investigate Romanus (373-5).
The Huns defeat the Alans at the battle of the river Tanaïs (Don) and enter Europe.
The Quadi invade across the Danube, after their king Gabinius is murdered at a peace banquet by Marcellianus, the praefectus praetorio of Gaul (Fall). The Huns ravage the countryside of Valeria, and their Sarmatian allies defeat two Roman legions.
    Gratiano et Equito 374 The Sarmatians and Quadi invade the provinces Valeria, Pannonia II and Moesia I (Summer). Sarmatians invading Moesia are driven back by the dux Moesiae, Theodosius Junior. Valens fights Athanaric at Noviodunum (Isaccea). Valentinian agrees to a treaty with Macrianus, king of the Alamanni.
Valentinian II 375-92 Gratiano et Equito 375 Valentinian crosses the Danube at Aquincum (Budapest) on a campaign against the Quadi.
In Asia, the Isaurians revolt.
In Africa, Firmus is betrayed and commits suicide. After devastating the lands of the Quadi, Valentian is preparing another campaign across the Danube when he dies of a stroke in Brigetio (Komarom-Szöny) after being enraged by envoys of the Quadi (November 17). His younger son
Flavius Valentinianus (Valentinian II) is made emperor by Valentinian's leading general Merobaudes (supported by the army) in Aquincum (Budapest) on November 22. Gratian, though the older son, agrees and is made guardian of Valentinian II (who is only 4 years old).
    Valente et Valentiniano 376 The magister equitum Theodosius Senior falls from grace and is executed in Carthago (Winter).
Defeated by the Huns, the West (Visi-) Goths under their king Frithigern ask for permission to enter the Empire and are allowed into Thrace (Fall), where they are settled by the magister militum per Thracias Lupicinus and the dux Moesiae secundae, Magnus Maximus. Many dedititii take advantage of their presence and join the Gothic army.
    Gratiano et Merobaude 377 The Saracens under Queen Mavia revolt and devastate a stretch of land from Phoenicia to Palestine as far as the Sinai. Valens quickly ends the revolt and concludes a treaty. Theodosius the Younger becomes magister militum per Illyricum and campaigns against the Sarmatians. The Goths in Thrace rebel and defeat the comes per Thracias Lupicinus near Marcianopolis (Devnia) during January-March. A battle near Ad Salices ('at the Willows') is undicided (late Summer). Barzimer, tribune of the scutarii, is defeated and killed near Develtum (Zagoria) during the Fall. Gratian prepairs to come to the aid of Valens.
Gratian settles Goths and Taifali in the Po valley.
    Valente et Valentiniano 378 The Alamanni (Lentienses) cross the frozen Rhine and invade Raetia (February). Victory of the comes Nannienus over the Alamanni under Priarius near Argentovaria (Harbourg) in the Spring. Gratian campaigns against the Lentienses in the Black Forest (early Summer). This delays him, but he marches east after the victory. Meanwhile, Valens campaigns against the Goths (Summer). Valens decides not to wait for Gratian. Battle of Adrianople (Edirne), defeat and death of Valens with more than 2/3 of the army of the East (August 9). Barbarian invasions along the entire Danube (late Summer to Fall). Gratian's magister equitum Theodosius Iunior pushes the Sarmatians back across the Danube (Fall).
Theodosius 379-95 Ausonio et Olibrio 379 Flavius Theodosius is elevated to Augustus of the Eastern Empire in Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) by Gratian (January 19). Theodosius begins the campaign against the Goths in Thrace (379-82). His general Modares defeats the Goths.
Death of Shapur II, he is succeeded by his brother
Ardeshir II as king of the Sassanid Persians.
    Gratiano et Theodosio 380 Gratian makes peace with the Ostrogoths under Alatheus and Safrac, whose subjects are settled in Pannonia (late Summer). The Bedouin under queen Mavia defeat a Roman force. Frithigern dies and is succeeded by Athanaric. Gratian aids Theodosius in his Gothic campaign by sending his magister militum Flavius Bauto and his son Flavius Arbogastes (Arbogast) against them (Winter).
    Syagrio et Eucerio 381 The Visigothic king Athanaric and his followers surrenders to Theodosius in Constantinople (January 11). Death of Athanaric (January 25). Gratian also takes the field against the Goths. Together, he and Theodosius drive the Goth from Illyria back into Thrace (Spring). In Britain, the comes Britanniarum Magnus Maximus defeats the Picts and the Scots who have invaded the diocese.
    Antonino et Syagrio 382 Theodosius makes peace with the Visigoths (October 3) and settles them as federates in Moesia II, probably with some degree of autonomy.
Merobaude et Saturnino 383 Theodosius elevates his older son Flavius Arcadius to the rank of Augustus (January 19) at the age of 6. Magnus Maximus in Britannia usurps the purple (Spring) and crosses over to Gaul. Gratian leaves Milan to campaign against the Alamanni in Raetia (early Summer) and confronts Maximus in Gaul. Gratians army defects to Maximus near Paris. Gratian is killed by the magister equitum Andragatius at Lugdunum (Lyons) (August 25). Death of Ardeshir II, he is succeeded by his cousin Shapur III as king of the Sassanid Persians. The Saracens break their treaty of 377, but their raids are defeated by the magister peditum praesentalis Richomer, uncle of Arbogast.
Victor 384-8 Ricomede et Clearcho 384 Maximus and Theodosius reach an agreement, Valentinian II is recognised as ruler of the Middle Empire (Italy, Illyria, Africa) while Maximus is recognised as Augustus of the West. However, later in the year Maximus breaks this agreement and elevates his son Victor to Augustus, no longer recognising Valentinian. He thereby forced the issue of his own legitimity.
    Arcadio et Baudone 385 Death of the magister militum Flavius Bauto (or Bautes), protector of Theodosius. His son Arbogast quickly becomes one of the most influential men in the empire.
    Honorio et Euuodio 386 Victory of the magister peditum per Thracias Promotus over the Greuthingi (Orstogoths) under Odotheus (early Fall).
Theodosius and Shapur III conclude a peace-treaty, which results in the division of Armenia.
    Valentiniano et Eutropio 387 Maximus invades Italy (early Summer) and Valentinian retreats with his mother Justina to Thessalonica, where Theodosius summons his troops for the campaign against Magnus Maximus. Some Goths defect and hide in the countryside around the city.
Theodosius sends his magister militum per Orientem
Flavius Stilicho to the Persians and reaches an agreement about the partition of Armenia. The pro-Roman king Arsak retained possession of west-Armenia, while the pro-Persian king Khosro retained the east.
    Theodosio et Cynegio 388 The Franks under the kings Gennobaudes, Markomer and Sunno invade the area around Colonia (Cologne). The magistri militum praesentalis Nannienus and Quintinus counterattack and are victorious in the Silva Carbonaria (Kohlenwald). Quintus is later defeated east of Novaesium (Neuss).
Theodosius and Valentinian II campaign against Magnus Maximus (July/August), they defeat him near Emona, Siscia (Sisak) and Poetovio (Ptuij/Pettau). Maximus surrenders in Aquileia and is executed (August 28), although his wife and two daughters are spared. Maximus' son Victor is defeated and executed by Valentinian's magister peditum Arbogast (Fall).
Theodosius reorganises the army and the supreme command structure in the Eastern Empire. He appoints Arbogast as magister militum in the West.
Death of Shapur III, he is succeeded by his son
Bahram IV as king of the Sassanid Persians.
    Timasio et Promoto 389 Valentinian is made emperor of the West and travels to Gaul (Spring).
Theodosius enters Rome with his young son Honorius (June 13). A renewed invasion of Franks into Gaul lead to a foedus (treaty) between them and Valentinian.
    Valentiniano et Neuterio 390 When the citizens of Thessalonike kill the magister militum per Illyricum Butheric, Theodosius exerts excessive reprisals and massacres between 7,000 and 15,000 inhabitants in the hippodrome (Spring).
    Tatiano et Symmacho 391 Arbogast campaigns across the Rhine against the Bructeri and the Chamavi (Winter).
Theodosius returns with the army to Constantinople (early Summer), after which he drives the Goths from Thessalonica to Thrace. Battles against several barbarian groups in Thrace (Fall-Winter). The magister militum per Thracias Promotus is killed (end of the year) by the Goths, who elect
Alaric as one of their leaders.
Theodosius issues a law allowing provincials to defend themselves against rogue soldiers.
Arcadio et Rufino 392 Arbogast refuses to acknowledge Valentinian. Valentinian is then found dead by hanging in Vienne (May 15), alledgedly by siucide.
Theodosius annexes Illyria for the Eastern Empire (Summer).
Arbogast, weakenened by the illness of his uncle Richomer, decides to elevates the pagan magister scrinii
Flavius Eugenius to the throne as puppet emperor (August 22) with support of the pagan Senate. Arbogast campaigns against the Franks opposite Colonia (Cologne) (Winter 392-3).
The magister militum per Thracias Stilicho continues the fight against barbarians in Thrace.
Theodosius' magister peditum praesentalis Richomer dies of illness.
Honorius 393-423 Theodosio et Abundantio 393 Theodosius elevates his second son Flavius Augustus Honorius to Augustus of the West (January 23) at the age of 9.
    Arcadio et Honorio 394 Theodosius campaigns against Eugenius and Arbogast (Summer). Victory of Theodosius in the 'Battle of the Frigid River' on the river Frigidus (Vipava/Wippach) on September 5-6. Beheading of Eugenius (September 6). Suicide of Arbogast (September 8). Theodosius is now sole emperor, with his sons Arcadius and Honorius as co-regents in the East and West.
Barbarian invasions along the entire Danube, e.g. Alaric in Thrace.
(Stilicho)   Olybrio et Probino 395 Theodosius dies in Milan (January 17). The Empire is divided once more, for the last time: Flavius Arcadius is now ruler of the East, Honorius of the West.
Alaric is elected king of the Visigoths and renounces the treaty with Rome. The magister peditum Flavius Stilicho (who is also guardian of Honorius) advances on Illyria. Alaric is shut up in Thessalia (Spring-Fall).
Return of the eastern army to Constantinople under the magister militum per Thracum Gainas. Execution of the Eastern praefectus praetorio Rufinus by Gainas before the gates of the city (November 27). Stilicho marches back to Italy.
Transfer of the seat of the Gallic prefecture from Trier to Arelate (Arles).
    Arcadio et Honorio 396 Stilicho travels to the Rhine and renews the treaties with several Germanic kings (Winter-Spring). Partition of Illyria between the East and Western Empires.
Alaric raids Greece, sparing Athens but ravaging Attica and the Peloponnesos.
    Caesario et Attico 397 Stilicho sails to Greece and campaigns against Alaric on the Peloponnesos (Spring-Summer). He sends a force by sea, but is recalled. Eutropius (Arcadius' chief eunuch) makes Alaric magister militum per Illyrium and the Goths retreat from Greece.
The comes Africae Gildo (son of Firmus and also king of the Moors) separates from the Western Empire, with the support of Arcadius and Eutropius. Gildo is declared hostis publicus (enemy of the State) during late Fall.
    Honorio et Eutichiano 398 Mascezel campaigns against Gildo (Winter-Spring). Defeat of Gildo between Ammaedara (Haïdra) and Theveste (Tébessa) in April. Execution of Gildo (July 31).
    Mallio et Theodoro 399 Revolt of the Ostrogoth peasant militias in Phrygia under Tarbigild (Spring). Defensive measures of the magister militum per Thracum Gainas and the dux Leo are without result. Gainas pacts with Tarbigild. Fall of the minister Eutropius. Death of Bahram IV, he is succeeded by his son Yazdegird I as king of the Sassanid Persians.
    Stilicone et Aureliano 400 Gainas forces his nomination to magister militum praesentalis and enters Constantinople with his army (Winter-Spring). Confusion erupts among the Gothic forces, and Gainas suddenly leaves the city. Up to 7000 Goths are massacred (July). The magister militum Fravitta besieges Gainas on the Hellespont (Fall). His liburni destroy the ships of Gainas in the Dardanelles. Gainas retreats across the Danube and is killed by the Huns under Uldin (December 23).

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